HELIOS Base User manual
In the following descriptions, instructions, and examples, the expression "HELIOSDIR" is used for the path of the directory where the HELIOS software is installed. For example, this could be "/usr/local/helios".
For those who have already installed previous versions of EtherShare or PCShare:
The former default installation paths "/usr/local/es" and
"/usr/local/pcshare" respectively, can easily be migrated to the new default path "/usr/local/helios" by means of the HELIOS Installer (see 4.2.1 "Migrate Settings").
The following list gives details about the hard- and software you need for creating a successfully working HELIOS Base software:
- One of the following UNIX systems:
- CD-ROM drive
- 200 MB in the "/usr" file system, in addition to the individual disk storage requirements of each of the users
- At least 128 MB RAM on the server
- At least one supported network adapter installed and activated
- RPC (UNIX) and TCP/IP must be installed and running, e.g. the rpcinfo -p command must work
Note: For installing the HELIOS software, you must be able to log in as "root" on your host.This chapter describes the steps that are indispensable for a standard installation and gives short explanations, where necessary. Please remember that all activities you have
to do are marked by an "instruction" arrow in the left margin. For a quick installation, you may proceed directly from one instruction to the other and skip the explanations in between.
For Mac OS X and Linux machines, the machine ID is provided by a USB-dongle, which you receive from your HELIOS dealer, and which you have to plug in first (see also the note on page 0-14 in "Welcome to HELIOS Base").
The installation is carried out by two separated programs. The first program ("installer") must be started from the
CD-ROM. It lets you select the product(s) you want to install and copies all related files and the installation program to the local disk of your UNIX computer. The "backend" installer then automatically completes the installation.
HELIOS issues software updates every now and then to enhance the product. These updates are distributed via the HELIOS web server www.helios.de, and they are included on every HELIOS CD-ROM. The installation procedure for software updates is described in 12 "The HELIOS Update Installer".
Note: If you do not enter any activation key the HELIOS product you have installed will run in a 3-hour demo mode only.In case you have no activation key at hand, please follow the instructions given in the paragraphs License information and What you have to do in "Welcome to HELIOS Base" at the beginning of this manual.
Under certain conditions, HELIOS issues so-called demo licenses. If you are entitled to get a demo license, you will receive an activation key for demonstration purposes that expires after a given period of time.
The UNIX host must be provided with a fully installed and configured operating system. You must be able to log in as superuser ("root") to allow the installation program to create subdirectories and make the required system changes.
Important: Before starting the installation, you should create a backup copy of the system disk of your host computer.Those who upgrade from an earlier product version, e.g. CD 016, install as described in 4.1.5 "Software installation" and 4.2 "Migrating from earlier versions to EtherShare 3.1, PCShare 3.1, etc.".
The "HELIOS Installer" is a UNIX program and does not support mouse operation. It is designed to be fully operable with the keys available on a standard "vt100"-keyboard.
- Positioning the cursor with the cursor keys
- Typing the first letter of the menu item
- Positioning the cursor with the TAB keyIn lists, the BACKSPACE key deletes the selected entry. In text fields, it deletes the character to the left of the cursor and moves all other text one position to the left in order to fill the gap.
Note: If (on some special terminals/keyboards) BACKSPACE does not work, try DEL) instead.The DEL key deletes the character under the cursor and moves all other text one position to the left to fill the gap. The DEL key is not always available on a UNIX terminal keyboard.
The currently selected function is aborted and the program goes back to the previous prompt or action.
In lists, the Insert key inserts an entry. In text fields, the Insert key inserts a space character at the cursor position.
Note: If you plan to install the HELIOS Software on a
Mac OS X platform, skip ahead to 4.1.6 "Software installation (Mac OS X)".
If you are not upgrading to the new software products move to First time installation on the next page.Before installing and migrating the new product versions, all previous HELIOS products must be stopped and deactivated in order to prevent the old product versions from being loaded instead of the new ones:
The installation and migration can be done by installing the new versions without removing the previous versions. (EtherShare 2.6, OPI 2.1, etc.). Please install the new versions in a different directory, e.g. "/usr/local/helios".
You are guided through the installation by a menu-driven program, the HELIOS Installer. While older HELIOS installation processes required a lot of confirmations by the user/system administrator, e.g. accepting various default settings, this HELIOS Installer does nearly everything on its own. You merely have to start the installation.
Note: The following installation example describes the steps that must be taken on an IBM RS/6000 computer under AIX 4. Slight deviations may occur - depending on your system type and configuration.-> Then place the CD-ROM in the CD drive of your UNIX computer and enter the mount and install commands which may be different for different UNIX systems.
The appropriate commands for your specific computer are stated in the booklet we have enclosed with our CD-ROM.
As soon as you have entered the last command, the Introduction, Welcome, and License windows of the "HELIOS Installer" window appear.
-> If you agree to the terms and conditions select Agree. If you do not agree click Disagree; then the installation of the HELIOS software will be cancelled.
The HELIOS Installer main menu appears (Fig. 1).
Fig. 1: The HELIOS Installer main menu
Note: The bottom of the HELIOS Installer window provides helpful details and instructions.The default installation path of the HELIOS software is
"/usr/local/helios". However, if you want to use - for whatever reason - a different path you must first specify it in the HELIOS Installer.
-> In the HELIOS Installer select Setup from the main menu and specify the desired path. Then confirm your changes with Ok, else select Cancel.
Note: The HELIOS Installer creates an installation log file in the "/tmp" directory ("helios.installer.log") which records all actions and steps that have been taken during the installation or migration process.-> To start the installation of the HELIOS software select Install HELIOS Products from the main menu and press RETURN.
The Installable Products section shows all available HELIOS software products. If there are already HELIOS software products installed on the server they are listed in the Already Installed section. Otherwise this section is missing (compare Fig. 2 and 3).
Fig. 2: Install HELIOS Products menu
Note: The HELIOS products Base and Base Data are always required for the installation of any other HELIOS product, e.g. EtherShare, PCShare, etc.
Fig. 3: Install HELIOS Products menu -> In the Installable Products section highlight the product you want to install and press the space bar, so it becomes marked. To deselect one (or more) item(s) in the list, press the space bar again.
The example in Fig. 2 shows that Base (with Base Data) and EtherShare are already installed, and PCShare is about to be installed. Fig. 3 shows a "fresh" installation of Base (with Base Data), EtherShare and PCShare, where no HELIOS product software was installed before.
Important: Starting the installation will stop all HELIOS services running on the server. Therefore, please make sure all HELIOS users are logged-out before you install new products. To verify the HELIOS user status you can use the "swho" command described in 6.5 "swho", or use EtherShare Admin (Lists > Active Users) or PCShare Admin (Activities > Server Activities).The Installation ... completed window shows the status of the installation (Fig. 4).
Fig. 4: Installation ... completed window
-> Leave the installation menu with Esc or Ctrl-X (see also 4.1.4 "Navigating through the HELIOS Installer") to get back to the main menu. You can now quit the HELIOS Installer.
The HELIOS Installer has now installed all of the specified applications and related updates from the HELIOS CD. You may wish to know if there are subsequent updates available for download and installation. See 12 "The HELIOS Update Installer" for complete details.
See 11 "Uninstalling the HELIOS software" for an instruction on how to remove the HELIOS software from the server.
If this is an upgrade installation, you can now migrate your settings from the previous versions. To do so, skip ahead to 4.2 "Migrating from earlier versions to EtherShare 3.1, PCShare 3.1, etc."
Otherwise, your next step is to enter the HELIOS software license(s) for the installed product(s). Find instructions on how to do that by skipping ahead to 4.3 "Licenses".
-> Insert the HELIOS CD-ROM in the Mac OS X computer and double-click the "HELIOS Network Installer" CD icon, which appears on the desktop.
The Welcome to the HELIOS Installer dialog window appears (Fig. 5).
-> Then click on the padlock symbol in order to authenticate yourself to make changes (Fig. 6).
If you have administrative rights on the machine you can use your name and password in the authentication dialog.
Fig. 6: The HELIOS Installer Authenticate dialog
The Introduction dialog (Fig. 7) gives an overview of the installable HELIOS products and their main features.
-> Make sure that the Please select: pop-up menu shows the entry Installation, and click Continue to proceed.
Fig. 7: The HELIOS Installer Introduction window
The License Agreement window appears (Fig. 8).
-> If you agree to the terms and conditions click Agree. If you do not agree click Disagree; then the installation of the HELIOS software will be cancelled.
-> In the Destination for HELIOS Products menu (Fig. 9) enter the path to the location where you want to install the HELIOS products, or click Choose, which brings up the Macintosh File Selector (Fig. 10). Click Default to accept the default path "/usr/local/helios".
Fig. 9: Destination for HELIOS Products menu
The Installable Products section shows all available HELIOS software products. If there are already HELIOS software products installed on the server they are listed in the Already Installed section. Otherwise this section is empty (compare Fig. 11, 12 and 13).
Fig. 12: Install HELIOS Products menu
Fig. 13: Install HELIOS Products menu
Note: The HELIOS products Base and Base Data are always required for the installation of any other HELIOS product, e.g. EtherShare, PCShare, etc.-> In the Installable Products section click the checkbox of the product you want to install (see Fig. 12).
The example shows that Base (with Base Data) and EtherShare are already installed, and PCShare is about to be installed. Fig. 13 shows a "fresh" installation of Base (with Base Data), EtherShare and PCShare, where no HELIOS product software was installed before.
Important: Starting the installation will stop all HELIOS services running on the server. Therefore, please make sure all HELIOS users are logged-out before you install new products. To verify the HELIOS user status you can use the "swho" command described in 6.5 "swho", or use EtherShare Admin (Lists > Active Users) or PCShare Admin (Activities > Server Activities).The Status window (Fig. 14) informs you about the progress of the HELIOS software installation. As soon as the installation has finished, the software is started so the services are available immediately.
-> Enter the HELIOS software license(s) for the installed product(s) according to 4.3 "Licenses".
Fig. 14: The HELIOS Installer Status menu
The format to store server settings has changed in the new product version. There is only one preferences file for all HELIOS products. You can convert your configuration files (e.g. "atalk.conf", etc.) from a previous version.
Note: Keep in mind that you must have installed the new product before you can migrate. You might also need to adjust the migrated settings manually.-> Verify that the paths are correct and select the settings to migrate, select Ok and quit the HELIOS Installer (Fig. 15).
Fig. 15: Migrate Settings menu
Important: If you are migrating settings from just one product, EtherShare or PCShare, you must erase the other path entry in the respective field (compare Fig. 15). Otherwise, you will receive an error message.The Migrate Settings feature calls the HELIOS utility "migrate" which is described in 6.3 "migrate".
The following comparison shows where the various software settings used to be set in previous versions, and where they are set in the new version.
-/PPD & Fontlist -/var/spool/qmeta/
-/LPR Interface files -/var/spool/qmeta/
All AppleTalk network interfaces are migrated into the preferences file. The interfaces are stored with the same syntax (e.g.: if=-, nif=-), but in the form of a string list in the preferences file. The settings can be verified by issuing the "prefdump" command. The interface settings are stored in:
To configure the network interfaces use the "netconf" program which is described in the EtherShare manual (except for Mac OS X which uses its own network interface configuration program).
See also 7.2 "AppleTalk preference keys".
As all new printer queues can be administered via EtherShare Admin and new output options are available, we have decided not to migrate PCShare printers to the new Preferences storage. Shared printers with EtherShare can be published for PCShare with a single click in EtherShare Admin. Other printer queues must be created using EtherShare Admin.
Only old DOS printer queues using the HELIOS PCShare DOS "printsrv" must be configured using PCShare Admin.
Please note that home directories are turned on by default. Home volume settings can be configured by use of EtherShare Admin or PCShare Admin. For a conversion between different character sets on home volumes refer to the utility script "converthome" in the EtherShare manual.
OPI & PDF HandShake server settings are not migrated, please set them manually in EtherShare Admin (Lists > PDF Settings and Lists > OPI Server Settings).
As all old configuration files will stay unchanged in the system it is possible to switch back to the previous versions anytime.
-> In the "EtherShare Installation Menu" take the steps
1) Install programs and configuration files and
2) Install and configure AppleTalk kernel modules. Then quit the "EtherShare Installation Menu".
-> In the "PCShare Installation Menu" take only step
1) Install programs and configuration files.
Then quit the "PCShare Installation Menu".
Note: All changes and modifications applied to the new versions are not migrated back into the previous product versions.After the new version is installed and running, the old version can remain on the server for the purpose of switching back to the previous versions.
-> To prevent the old versions from loading during a system boot, deactivate the old product versions as start scripts, and start the HELIOS services again:
If you have used the previous version or the migration failed it is possible to start the migration again. Every time you do a migration the old version settings will override the new version settings.
The font lists and PPD of all spool files can be removed because the new one is in "HELIOSDIR/var/spool/qmeta".
The new versions provide an ICC-Profiles volume.
After all existing ICC-Profiles have been copied into the "HELIOSDIR/var/ICC-Profiles" volume, the old
ICC-Profiles volume can be removed.
For instructions on how to enter HELIOS software licenses on a Mac OS X platform read 4.3.3 "Entering a new license (Mac OS X)".
After you have installed a HELIOS software product on the server you must license the program in order to make it work.
The License a HELIOS Product menu appears (Fig. 16).
Fig. 16: License a HELIOS Product menu
-> In the Licensed Products section highlight ...New Entry and press RETURN (Fig. 17).
Fig. 17: License a HELIOS Product menu
In our example we license the PCShare software which was installed in HELIOS installation above in this chapter.
-> In the PCShare Base License dialog window (Fig.18) enter the serial number of the product, the number of users (i.e. the type of license you purchased with the software product) and the checksum which you get from the "Activation Key Reply" form. Then confirm with Ok.
Note: What you have to do in "Welcome to HELIOS Base" shows you step-by-step how to receive the "Activation Key Reply" form with the required keys.-> To leave the License a HELIOS Product menu go to Ok and press RETURN. Otherwise the changes you have applied to the server will not take effect.
An already existing HELIOS license cannot be edited. In such cases it must be removed and then replaced by another. To remove a HELIOS software license do the following:
-> In the License a HELIOS Product menu highlight the software license you want to remove and press BACKSPACE or Ctrl-H (see also 4.1.4 "Navigating through the HELIOS Installer").
-> To leave the License a HELIOS Product menu go to Ok and press RETURN. Otherwise the changes you have applied to the server will not take effect.
"HELIOS Services" is a GUI application designed for entering HELIOS software licenses, and for easily starting and stopping HELIOS processes.
-> Double-click the "HELIOS Services" icon in the "Applications" folder and select the Licenses tab within the "HELIOS Services" window (Fig. 19).
The field Machine ID: shows the machine ID of your Apple computer. In the other field all HELIOS product licenses are displayed, with Product name, Serial Number, and Expiration Date (Note that the entry in the Expiration Date column remains empty if you are running the software with a full license.).
Fig. 19: "HELIOS Services" - View License
-> Click View License File- to see the complete license file (Fig. 20).
-> Click Add License- to add a new HELIOS product license.
Fig. 20: "HELIOS Services" - View License
Fig. 21: "HELIOS Services" - Add License
An extra dialog window opens (Fig. 21) which lets you choose the desired product from the pop-up menu Product:, and lets you enter the serial number (Serial: ), the number of Units:, and the Checksum:. As mentioned before, if you are running a full license of the HELIOS products, leave the Expires: field empty. Otherwise, the expiration date of the demo license must be entered in the Expires: field as well.
Note: The EtherShare and PCShare products are licensed for use on a single computer system ("server"). The server has a unique machine identification ("HELIOS MachID") which is provided by a HELIOS USB dongle. The software can only once be licensed for a given USB dongle (MachID). Compare Fig. 19 and 20.For instructions on how to start and stop HELIOS Services under Mac OS X please read 4.4.3 "Starting/Stopping HELIOS Services (Mac OS X)".
Sometimes it might become necessary to start or stop HELIOS services on the server manually, e.g. after installing updates via the HELIOS Update Installer (see also 12 "The HELIOS Update Installer").
# cd /usr/local/helios/bin
# ./stop-helios now (see also 6.17 "stop-helios")
Important: Before issuing the "stop-helios" command make sure that all clients are logged-off (e.g. with the "swho" command, see 6.5 "swho")."HELIOS Services" is a GUI application designed for entering HELIOS software licenses, and for easily starting and stopping HELIOS processes.
The HELIOS Services window appears providing information on the HELIOS products status when you click Status.
-> Click the lock icon (see Fig. 22) to authenticate. After the authentication, the Start button will become available.
Fig. 22: "HELIOS Services" - Click the lock
The Messages: box shows the information that the HELIOS services are being started. When all available services are running, the display shows Done..
A click on the Status button then reveals a listing of all HELIOS processes (Fig. 23) and gives information about their name (Service), their Status, their process ID number (PID), date and time of starting (When), and - if a process has been started more than once - the number of Restarts.
Fig. 23: "HELIOS Services" - View process status
"HELIOS Services" has a feature that lets you specify a shutdown message and the time span to shutdown (Fig. 24).
Fig. 24: "HELIOS Services" - Specifying shutdown options
-> Specify the shutdown message in the Shutdown message: text box. In the Time to shutdown (minutes): field enter the time after which the services should be stopped (if you specify "0" for the time to shutdown the services will be stopped immediately).
Important: Shutting down a Mac OS X machine does not stop the HELIOS software. At the next login, all volumes which were hold open at shutdown are rebuilt.The Messages: box then displays the information that all HELIOS services are being stopped (Fig. 25).
Fig. 25: "HELIOS Services" - Stopping services
HELIOS server applications allow very precise, and easy to administer, control of access to their services. For example, access to volumes can be limited to members of specific groups (if you are not a member of an authorized group, the volume will not even be listed in the Chooser), and can require a password to mount the volume. Printers can also be password protected. EtherShare Admin and PCShare Admin recognize four levels of authorization, to allow appropriate delegation of administrative capabilities
(7.8 "Administration Server preference keys").
EtherShare and PCShare, by default, use encrypted passwords, so that no cleartext passwords are sent over the network during the login procedure. For a detailed description, refer to the EtherShare 2.6 manual, chapter 9.5, "afppasswd file". Upon installation, the "passwd" file in "HELIOSDIR/var/conf/" is created. This UNIX text file lists all UNIX users who are also EtherShare or PCShare users, together with their encrypted passwords. Initially, users will have blank HELIOS passwords, which should be changed via the Change Password- option in the Mac Chooser or "Connect to Server" dialog, or else via EtherShare Admin. Using these options will automatically set up the same password in both the UNIX system password file (typically "/etc/passwd") and the HELIOS password file ("HELIOSDIR/var/conf/passwd"). This will also automatically maintain "Yellow Pages" entries (if used).
During the installation of the HELIOS software the users "root" and "demouser" are created. Both of them come without any password, i.e. their password field is empty. This means a significant lack of security (anybody can log on to the server as user "root" without needing to know the password), and so you should specify a password for "root".
Important: For your own security, provide your user accounts with passwords to prevent them from unauthorized access and abuse!
Note: If this is an upgrade from an installation that utilized HELIOS encrypted passwords, and those settings were migrated to the new version, then normally no further action is needed.-> However, to determine which users are in the HELIOS "passwd" file, and if they have passwords, perform the following check:
Each line shows the user and their encrypted password. Any user without a password should have one set according to the following instructions.
The EtherShare Admin application is in the "MacOS" > "EtherShare Tools" > "EtherShare Admin" folder.
-> On the EtherShare Admin File menu, select Login- to log in. Use User Name: "root" and leave the Password: field empty. Then open Lists > Users, select the "root" entry from the list and double-click it.
The Users:root dialog window opens (Fig. 26).
Fig. 26: EtherShare Admin - Users:root dialog
On specifying the password, EtherShare Admin prompts for the new password to be entered once again. This ensures that no typing mistakes have been made. After clicking OK the password will be allocated to user "root".
Note: The password field is always shown empty, even if the user has already allocated a password.
Note: On a Mac OS X machine, the "root" login is disabled by default. Once the "root" password is specified with EtherShare Admin, the "root" login is enabled automatically.
Also note that if a password is modified via Mac OS X tools, our additional password file is not changed.-> Then set passwords for all other existing users, or add new users (passwords set under EtherShare Admin or PCShare Admin are valid for Mac OS X as well).
Setting a password with PCShare Admin is very similar to the above described method with EtherShare Admin and is therefore not described here in detail.
Alternatively, passwords can be set by using the HELIOS utility program "chpasswd". See 6.10 "chpasswd".
HELIOS offers additional access control by means of access control lists, based upon the user's IP address. The default installation creates a single ACL (Access Control List), that specifies which IP addresses are allowed access to HELIOS resources (volumes, home directories, printers) and services (EtherShare Admin).
All of the above settings are easily configured by means of EtherShare Admin, which allows easy GUI-based server administration from any Mac on the network. Once the HELIOS software is installed, EtherShare Admin (or PCShare Admin) should be utilized to configure these security options. Refer to the EtherShare and PCShare manuals for further details.
Finer IP-based access control can be specified for individual HELIOS resources. For example, each volume can have its own ACL. This allows certain volumes to be accessible only from within the local network, while others can be made available to remote offices or customers. Or the System Administrator can be authorized to access EtherShare Admin from home, for 24/7 access. The default ACL is called ipaccess, and is described in 5.8. To create a resource-specific ACL, create an ipaccess file (see
A 2 "IP configuration - Reference Part") with the desired access settings for that resource, and use the "prefvalue" command (6.7) to associate it with the appropriate volume, etc. For reference, upon installation, a second ACL is created, ipaccess.local (5.8), which contains the settings that will allow access only to users on the local network. Likewise, ipaccess.lpd (5.8) defines access to the LPD of a machine, independent of the entries in the "ipaccess" list.
For convenience, the various "ipaccess" related preference settings are listed here:
Check the product specific README files which contain the latest information and updates that did not make it into the manuals. They are available in:
-> To configure the network interfaces use - if necessary - the "netconf" program, which is described in the EtherShare manual (except for Mac OS X which uses its own network interface configuration program).
Note: If EtherShare is installed, and the server has more than one network interface, then AppleTalk routing is automatically configured. If you need to change the configuration, refer to the EtherShare manual for instructions on the "netconf" utility (recommended). Alternatively, the prefvalue command can be used to set the "atalkd" preferences (see 7.2 "AppleTalk preference keys").
Note: HELIOS LanTest can be used to test network server volume and local hard disk performance. LanTest can be found in the "HELIOS Applications" volume, in the "MacOS" > "EtherShare Tools" > "HELIOS LanTest" folder.-> Verify that user passwords have been set (see 4.5.2 "Setting passwords").
-> Set up users, groups, volumes, printers, ipaccess, etc. We recommend to do this with "EtherShare Admin" (see EtherShare manual), or "PCShare Admin" (see PCShare manual).
Note: This chapter only refers to migrating software as of HELIOS CD018 or newer.All installed HELIOS products and settings can be transferred to a new platform by installing the HELIOS products from CD and moving the HELIOS "var" folder to the new platform. All server settings including volumes and printers are transferred to the new platform and are automatically used on the new system. All volumes and printer spool directories will then be re-created on the new platform when start-helios -i is executed.
-> Copy the complete "HELIOSDIR/var" directory, which contains all volumes and printer settings, from the old platform (here Sun Solaris) to the new platform (Linux).
In doing so the "HELIOSDIR/var" directory on the Linux platform will be replaced with the "HELIOSDIR/var" directory of the Sun Solaris platform.
Note: Users, groups and volume content are NOT migrated. Please set users and groups manually in EtherShare Admin (Lists > PDF Settings and Lists > OPI Server Settings), and copy the volume content from the old to the new platform.
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