HELIOS EtherShare 2.6 User manual


5 EtherShare Admin
5.1 General remarks
This chapter describes the use of the Macintosh application EtherShare Admin by the system administrator or other designated persons in order to configure the EtherShare system from any Macintosh workstation in a convenient and secure way. It can also be used to set up regular users, groups, and printers on the server. In a multi-host environment, you can make several EtherShare Admin connections simultaneously to copy certain configuration data between two or more hosts.
EtherShare Admin is also available to other, regular EtherShare users, to allow them to inspect the current EtherShare configuration and printer queues, but only designated persons can make changes (see Security - who can use the EtherShare Admin? below).
In order to use the EtherShare Admin, the Administration Server must already be running on the host you want to configure. EtherShare is configured to start this server automatically when the system is booted. The Administration Server communicates with the EtherShare Admin through a custom protocol derived from the AppleTalk Filing Protocol (AFP), which was especially developed by HELIOS for this purpose and is transparent to other AppleTalk devices, or via a TCP/IP connection which allows for managing multiple servers remotely and supporting concurrent AppleTalk and TCP/IP connections.

Important: With the EtherShare Admin, version 2.6, you cannot configure a version 2.2 (or older) EtherShare. The other way round, a version 2.2 Admin cannot be used for setting up EtherShare 2.6 on the server.

Other chapters in this manual describe how administrative work, which is required to configure and maintain the EtherShare System, can be carried out directly on the host, e.g. with the help of a standard editor program such as vi. Most of these tasks can be carried out much easier by using the Macintosh application EtherShare Admin from one of the Macintosh workstations.
The EtherShare Admin application offers a high degree of convenience to the system administrator. The user environment of the Macintosh allows the host configuration to be represented graphically with lists and windows. The EtherShare Admin allows users, groups, volumes, and printers to be installed, configured and deleted from one of the workstations. You can also interrogate each PostScript printer for available resident fonts and install download fonts to the print server.
The EtherShare Admin accesses and modifies various system configuration files, just as if the changes had been made with an editor. However, the EtherShare Admin and the Administration Server have built-in safety checks to ensure that conflicting or invalid configuration settings are not possible.
Changes to the configuration files "afpvolumes" and "suffixes" will be recognized immediately by all "afpsrv" processes.
Any changes applied directly to the configuration files "suffixes" and "afpvolumes" with EtherShare Admin do not require a new login. However, changes that have been applied manually or without using EtherShare Admin at all, still require that AppleShare clients unmount all volumes from the EtherShare server and login anew.
Benefits:
Potential drawbacks:
Make it a habit to use EtherShare Admin's feature of sending messages to connected Macintosh clients to notify these in advance of potential damaging chances. You can verify with Lists/Active Users which user does have certain volumes in access. Just open this menu before you save any settings to volumes and it will list the currently logged-in AppleShare clients. The Lists/Active Users will be updated automatically every 15 seconds.
Security -
who can use the
EtherShare Admin?
The EtherShare Admin is available to all EtherShare users, to allow them to inspect the current EtherShare configuration and printer queues, but only the system administrator and members of three special groups are allowed to make any configuration changes or delete and re-schedule print jobs.
Members of the System Administrator group (default group name "SysAdm") can do all tasks that the system administrator can do with the exception of changing user data for any users with a user ID less than 100 (note: the system administrator has a user ID of 0).
Members of the Printer Administrator group (default group name "PrnAdm") can perform print job related tasks.
The additional Queue Administrator group (default group name "QueueAdm") can change queue settings, i.e. perform all tasks which are related to printer queue configuration and printer queue management.
"PrnAdm" is allowed to:
"QueueAdm" is allowed to:
5.2 Starting EtherShare Admin
During the installation of EtherShare, the "install" program automatically creates a public Macintosh volume called "EtherShare Applications". This volume is used to store Macintosh applications such as Helios Terminal, Helios Mail and EtherShare Admin.

You can start the EtherShare Admin from any of the Macintosh workstations on the network by opening the network volume "EtherShare Applications" and clicking twice on the EtherShare Admin icon. Alternatively - if you have installed the Macintosh applications on your local Macintosh as described in chapter 4.6 - you can start the EtherShare Admin program from the menu.

After loading, the EtherShare Admin normally shows a copyright notice (compare figure 18), unless you have changed your preferences (see chapter 5.4 "Setting Admin preferences").
Fig. 18: EtherShare Admin Copyright Notice

5.3 Logging on to the Administration Server

Log on to the Administration Server (AppleTalk or TCP/IP) by choosing Login... from the File menu (figure 19).
Fig. 19: Choosing Login... from the File menu

via AppleTalk
When you choose Login... for the first time, the EtherShare Admin opens a window to let you choose the EtherShare host you want to connect to (compare figure 20).
Use the list on the left to choose the zone where the EtherShare host is located. The list shows all known zones. Unless you have external routers in your network, only the zones from internal EtherShare routers will be visible. If you only have one zone (because you only have one hardware interface, or because other zones are not available for some reason), you will see an asterisk "*" (representing the current zone) instead of a zone name. After choosing the zone, the list on the right shows all hosts in the chosen zone you can connect to (i.e. all hosts that are running the Administration Server). If you click the Server IP Address... button, the TCP/IP login window (figure 22) appears instead and you can log in as described below in via TCP/IP.
Fig. 20: Selecting an Administration Server via AppleTalk

Choose the host you want to connect to and click OK.

The EtherShare Admin then opens a window to allow you to log on to the Administration Server by entering your EtherShare user name, or full name, and password (see figure 21):
Fig. 21: Dialog for User Name and Password (AppleTalk)

via TCP/IP
Likewise, logging on to the Administration Server via a TCP/IP connection is also possible by choosing Login... from the File menu (see figure 19).
When you choose Login... for the first time, the EtherShare Admin opens a window to let you enter the EtherShare host name you want to connect to (compare figure 22). Clicking the Server via AppleTalk... button lets you log on to the Administration Server via AppleTalk as described above in via AppleTalk (compare figure 20).
Fig. 22: Selecting an Administration Server via TCP/IP

Enter the EtherShare host name, or the IP-address, you want to connect to and click OK.

The EtherShare Admin then opens a window to allow you to log on to the Administration Server by entering your EtherShare user name, or full name, and password (see figure 23):
Fig. 23: Dialog for User Name and Password (TCP/IP)

Logging in via AppleTalk or TCP/IP
The User Name default entry is the one that is specified in the File Sharing dialog on the Macintosh. If an individual user name is not yet configured you have to log in as "root" which usually is the name of the system administrator on a UNIX system. To log in as "root", you have to know the "root" password.
When you log in for the first time, you have the option of choosing Save name and/or Save password. If you check both you will not have to log in manually the next time you start the EtherShare Admin. The name and password are stored in a hidden file on your local hard disk.

Important: For maximum security do not use the Save password option.

If you have checked Save name, the EtherShare Admin makes a note of your name, and the zone and name (or
IP-address, respectively) of the Administration Server you want to use. The next time you start the EtherShare Admin, you only have to enter your password.
If necessary, you can log on to more than one host at the same time - see chapter 5.15 "Multiple EtherShare hosts".

Click OK when all inputs have been made.

The EtherShare Admin then attempts to make the connection to the chosen server. If your inputs were correct, one or more Lists windows should now appear automatically (unless you have changed your preferences as described later).
Figure 24 shows the EtherShare Admin menu and four of the available Lists windows.
Fig. 24: Four of the Lists windows for host "ibm"

Note: By default, only a maximum number of clients (i.e. users) are permitted to work with the EtherShare Admin concurrently. See also sessions in chapter 9.4 "Parameters of the "afpsrv" program"

5.4 Setting Admin preferences

Choosing Preferences... from the Edit menu opens a window that allows various standard settings for the EtherShare Admin to be changed according to your individual taste (see figure 25).

The settings are stored in the Admin preferences file "EtherShare Prep" on your local hard disk, whenever you click OK in the "Preferences" window. This allows EtherShare Admin to be configured individually for each workstation.
Fig. 25: The "Preferences" window

Technical note for system integrators: The default spool directory is "/var/spool". Depending on the operating system and configuration "/var/spool" may reside on root "/", "/var", or on another file system. You should always verify the free space in the spool directory you choose, because the space requirements may be high during printing. To verify the free space available, go to "/var/spool"
(cd /var/spool) and issue the "df ." command. Compare the free space value to other file systems by using the "df" command. If necessary, establish a separate file system for spooling.
Window
positions
Information about which windows are open (and about their positions and sizes) are stored in the Admin preferences file "EtherShare Prep". This allows you to arrange windows according to your individual taste, and have the arrangement retained between sessions. However, this only works if you have checked Save name in the Login dialog.
Background windows
active
Background windows active specifies whether a background (i.e. non-active) window should react immediately to a mouse click, or whether the mouse click should initially swap the window into the foreground (activate it). When carrying out comprehensive work with a number of lists, an active background window can save much time by allowing rapid selection.
Log on
automatically
Log on automatically specifies whether the EtherShare Admin should immediately start with the Login dialog, or if you want to choose Login... from the File menu manually.
Save name also causes auto-login. The Log on automatically checkbox is ignored if Save name is checked, and EtherShare Admin will immediately open the windows last specified with your preferences after you have entered your password. If you have also checked Save password, the Login dialog will be skipped, too.

Important: For maximum security do not use the Save password option.

Starting
program,
User home
directory,
Primary group
Three of the default parameters which are prompted when creating a new user can be specified here: the user's Starting program (login), the User home directory, and the Primary group. Setting appropriate defaults can save time when creating new users, since these three fields are generally configured with similar entries. The entry in the User home directory field should be terminated with a "/" character.
Spool
directory
Use this field to configure the default spool directory to be used when creating a new printer. Setting an appropriate default can save time when setting up new printers, since this field is generally the same for all printers. The entry in the Spool directory field should be terminated with a "/" character. If required, the spool directory can be set to swap out the spool files to other file systems (hard disks), but you should avoid NFS-mounted spool directories because of the performance loss.

Important: When setting up a new printer in the Spool directory field make sure the directory already exists!

Minimum
User ID,
Minimum Group ID
Minimum User ID and Minimum Group ID specify the lowest number allowed for user numbers (user IDs) and group numbers (group IDs). This parameter is provided as an additional security feature.
Language
The pop-up menu Language is used to select the desired dialog language for menus, messages and screen prompts. The default for this field is the language setting of your Macintosh system file or English if the local language is not supported. If you change Language, you must close and re-open each window before the new language will take effect.
EtherShare Admin also supports plug-in modules that define new languages. This feature allows additional language localizations without the need to release an update to EtherShare Admin. The first external module supports Japanese.
To be able to access the new Japanese language module, you have to mount the "EtherShare Applications" volume. The "Admin Plug-Ins" folder contains the external language module (see figure 26) and once you have mounted the volume, Japanese will automatically appear in the Language pop-up menu.
Fig. 26: "Admin Plug-Ins" folder on the "EtherShare Applications" volume

Note that the languages that are included in the EtherShare Admin binary, cannot be overwritten by a plug-in module.
Saving your preferences
If you make any changes in the "Preferences" window, they are only valid after clicking OK. Click Cancel to close the Preferences window without saving changes.
5.5 About list windows
Window titles always show the name of the chosen Administration Server (normally the host name) and the function of the window. List windows have a scroll bar on the right hand side to enable the list to be scrolled up and down. Lists are available for users, groups, volumes, printer queues, Print Server fonts, active users, log and message files, versions, extension mappings, and IP access (compare figure 27). The items OPI Server Settings... and PDF Settings... in the Lists menu are only active if you have purchased and installed HELIOS EtherShare OPI, or HELIOS PDF Handshake, respectively. Otherwise they are grayed out.
Fig. 27: EtherShare Admin Lists menu

If the required list windows do not appear immediately after logging on, use the Lists menu to open the required lists manually. Information on which windows are open (and on their positions and sizes) is stored in the Admin preferences file "EtherShare Prep". This allows you to arrange windows according to your individual taste, and have the arrangement retained between sessions. However, this only works if you have checked Save name in the Login dialog.
List limits
The number of entries a list (users, groups, fonts, etc.) can hold, is limited. The current limit (independent of adjusted memory in the Macintosh Finder info field) is 8192 entries, and it is, due to a limitation of the Macintosh list manager, used to display these lists. Usually, only very large sites with more than 8000 users or more than 8000 fonts stored on the EtherShare Print Server may encounter this problem. The lists will be displayed but may not sort or hold all entries.
Selecting
multiple
entries from
a list
The EtherShare Admin is generally compliant with standard Macintosh conventions (e.g. keyboard shortcuts) for selecting multiple entries (such as users) from list boxes. This saves time if you want to open multiple windows, for example.
Use Shift-click to select a range of entries and use Command-click to select/deselect individual entries from a list. Go to the top of a list and type a letter to jump to the first entry that starts with that letter.
EtherShare Admin also issues warning messages before some operations. You can suppress the warnings by pressing and holding the Option key when choosing the operation.
5.6 Users list
The Users list shows all users known to the host. The Administration Server automatically creates this list by inspecting the host's system file "/etc/passwd" (or the appropriate yellow pages file, see chapter 13.5 "Configuration with Yellow Pages").

If the Users list is not already open, choose Users... from the Lists menu (see figure 28).
Fig. 28: Users list on host "ibm"

Changing user data
In order to change the parameters for a particular user, you have to open the user's window that displays all available information about him/her (see figure 29).

Select the required user and choose Open from the File menu (or double-click on the user name).

Fig. 29: User data for user "michael" on host "ibm"

The window title shows the name of the Administration Server, the window type Users, and the user name.
The window shows the User name (case sensitive!), the user Password field (case sensitive!), the Full name of the user, the Home directory of the user, the Start program, the Primary group and the list of Groups to which the user belongs. Note that the latter also includes the user's primary group.
The Password field is always displayed empty - this field is only used when the system administrator needs to change or define a user's password. Note that users can also change their own passwords themselves, with the Change password... button in the Macintosh Chooser.

Important: You must not use accented characters (umlauts) in the User name, Home directory or Start program fields. It is best not to use them in the Password and Full name fields either; otherwise, your UNIX login will be different from your Macintosh login. Moreover, to be on the safe side, your User name and Password should not exceed eight characters.

The Administration Server gets the user information from the file "/etc/passwd", with the exception of the list of groups to which the user belongs, which is obtained from the file "/etc/group". If yellow pages (NIS) is installed, the information is obtained from the appropriate yellow pages files instead.
It is now possible to change any of the fields as required; editing is carried out "as usual" in a regular Macintosh environment. Note that the user Home directory field can be left blank, but a starting program and a primary group are obligatory. If the user should not receive the rights to access the UNIX shell, "/bin/date" can be entered in the Start program field. If the user Home directory field is left empty, a private user volume will not be provided by the File Server. Otherwise, it is provided automatically by EtherShare (see also homedir in chapter 9.4 "Parameters of the "afpsrv" program").

Note: "/" as EtherShare volume is not allowed at all. Use another directory if "root" needs a private volume.

In order to assign an additional group to the user, activate the Groups list and click on one of the group names. Without releasing the mouse button, drag the name away from the list - a dotted frame is drawn around the selection - and release the mouse button over the user's list of groups (compare figure 30). The list will appear bold when the cursor is positioned correctly.
Fig. 30: Assigning group "general" to user "michael" on host "ibm"

Provided that the user is not already a member of this group, the group is assigned to the user and the user is now a member of the group. Most UNIX hosts only allow up to 8 or 16 groups per user.
Please note that this procedure is only possible between user lists and group lists on the same host (see also chapter 5.15 "Multiple EtherShare hosts").
In order to delete a group from the user's assignments, select the group and choose Clear from the Edit menu. This operation should not be confused with deleting a group from the Groups list. Solely the membership of the user in the group is deleted, which is not the same as deleting the group from the system.
Any user must be a member of at least one group. So, if you delete all entries from the user's list of groups, the user will automatically become a member of the group "nogroup" (though the entry "nogroup" is invisible in the user's list of groups).

If you make any changes in the user data window, they are only valid after clicking Save and only take effect with the next user login. Provided that the changes have not been saved, the Revert button can be used to recall the original data. If an attempt is made to close the window without saving or reverting changes, the EtherShare Admin prompts whether saving should be carried out or not.

Changing user
passwords
When amending and saving user data, the password is only changed if an entry has been made in the Password field. Note that the Password field is always shown empty, even if the user has already been allocated a password. On changing the password, the EtherShare Admin prompts for the new password to be entered once again, to ensure that no typing mistakes have been made (see figure 31).
Fig. 31: Re-typing the new user password

The changed password is entered in the file "/etc/passwd" and in the optional AFP user list ("$ESDIR/conf/
afppasswd"). It is immediately valid, but only takes effect with the next user login. If yellow pages (NIS) is installed, the information is changed in the appropriate yellow pages files instead.
Note that users can also change their own passwords themselves, with the Change Password... button in the Macintosh Chooser.
Creating users
A new user can be created by filling in a new user data window.

Activate the Users list and choose New from the File menu (see figure 32).
Fig. 32: Creating a new user entry

The EtherShare Admin then opens a user data window which already contains some default values from the "Preferences" window. Fill in or change the fields as required (compare figure 29 above).
When typing in the user name, a suggested home directory is automatically filled into the corresponding field. The default suggestion can be changed if required.

A new user is entered in the server's Users list as soon as you click on Save. If the user data window is closed without saving, the new user entry is discarded.

On saving the new user, a new entry with the corresponding user data is made in the "/etc/passwd" file. The user ID will be assigned automatically. If groups were specified, these are entered in "/etc/group". If yellow pages (NIS) is installed, the information are changed in the appropriate yellow pages files instead. Note that if NIS+ is installed on your system, user and group data cannot be configured with the EtherShare Admin application.

Note: EtherShare (with the exception of Helios Terminal) will allow you to log in either with your user name or with your full name.

Note: The AIX operating system e.g. does not "like" user and group names longer than 8 characters, but the EtherShare Admin does not check for this. If you use longer names, you will receive various UNIX error messages. You may not be able to make a UNIX shell login if your login name is too long, or one of your group names is too long, but you can still log on to the File Server. We recommend to use user and group names of up to 8 characters only.

Deleting users
A user can be deleted from the host as follows:

Highlight the user name in the Users list and select Clear from the Edit menu (see figure 33).

Fig. 33: Deleting a user entry

The Admin then prompts for acknowledgment of deletion, to allow it to be aborted if required (see figure 34).
Fig. 34: Confirming deletion of a user entry

If deletion is confirmed, the entry is removed from the window and the corresponding entries are deleted from the files "/etc/passwd" and "/etc/group". Files in the user's home directory are not deleted. They must be removed by the system administrator.

Important: Do never delete UNIX users like bin, daemon, etc. This may cause serious problems.

5.7 Groups list
The Groups list shows all groups known to the host (see figure 35). The Administration Server automatically creates this list by inspecting the UNIX system file "/etc/group" (or the appropriate yellow pages file).

If the Groups list is not already open, choose Groups... from the Lists menu.
Fig. 35: Groups list on host "ibm"

Changing group data
In order to change the parameters for a particular group, you have to open the data window that displays all available information about the selected group (see figure 36).

Select the required group and choose Open from the File menu (or double-click on the group name).

Fig. 36: Group data for group "develo_b" on host "ibm"

The window title shows the name of the Administration Server, the window type Groups and the group name. The window shows the Group name and the list of the Members of the group. The Administration Server gets the group information from the files "/etc/group" and "/etc/passwd" (or from the appropriate yellow pages files).
It is now possible to change the group name and the members of the group.
In order to assign an additional user to the group, activate the Users list and select one of the user names. Without releasing the mouse button, drag the name away from the Users list - a dotted frame is drawn around the selection - and release the mouse button over the group's list of members (compare figure 37). The list will appear bold when the cursor is positioned correctly.
Fig. 37: Assigning user "peter" to group "develo_b" on host "ibm"

Provided that the user is not already a member of this group, he/she will be added to the list of members now. Please note that this procedure is only possible between user lists and group lists on the same host (see also chapter 5.15 "Multiple EtherShare hosts").
In order to delete a user from the group's list of members, select the user name and choose Clear from the Edit menu. This operation should not be confused with deleting a user from the user list. Solely the membership of the user in the group is deleted, which is not the same as deleting the user from the system.

If you make any changes in the group data window, they are only valid after clicking Save and only take effect with the next user login. Provided that the changes have not been saved, the Revert button can be used to recall the original data. If an attempt is made to close the window without saving or reverting changes, the EtherShare Admin prompts whether saving should be carried out or not.

Creating groups
A new group can be created as follows:

Activate the Groups list and choose New from the File menu (compare figure 38).
Fig. 38: Creating a new group entry

The EtherShare Admin then opens a new group data window. Fill in the group name and add members to the group as required (compare figure 36 above).

A new group is entered in the server's Groups list as soon as you click Save. If the group data window is closed without saving, the new group entry is discarded.

On saving the new group, a new entry with the corresponding group data and member list is made in the "/etc/group" file (or the appropriate yellow pages files). The "group id" will be assigned automatically.

Note: The AIX operating system e.g. does not "like" user and group names longer than 8 characters, but the EtherShare Admin does not check for this. If you use longer names, you will receive various UNIX error messages. You may not be able to make a UNIX shell login if your login name is too long, or one of your group name is too long, but you can still log on to the File Server. We recommend to use user and group names of up to 8 characters only.

Deleting groups
A group can be deleted from the host as follows:

Highlight the group name in the Groups list and select Clear from the Edit menu (see figure 39).
Fig. 39: Deleting a group entry

EtherShare Admin then prompts for acknowledgment of deletion to allow it to be aborted if required (see figure 40).
Fig. 40: Confirming deletion of a group entry

If deletion is confirmed, the entry is removed from the window and the corresponding entry is deleted from the file "/etc/group". The file "/etc/passwd" is checked for users who were assigned that group as their primary group; if any are found, the ID for the primary group in the user's entry in the "passwd" file is changed by convention to the group ID of the group "nogroup". The user must then be assigned a new primary group before he/she can log on again. Also, make sure that the group is not used for the volume Groups list of any of the volumes.
If yellow pages (NIS) is installed, the information are changed in the appropriate yellow pages files instead. Note that if NIS+ is installed on your system, user and group data cannot be configured with the EtherShare Admin application.

Important: Do never delete UNIX groups like bin, daemon, lp, or mail. This may cause serious problems.

5.8 Volumes list
The Volumes list shows all public AppleShare volumes known to EtherShare (see figure 41). The Administration Server automatically creates this list by inspecting the EtherShare public volume list "$ESDIR/conf/afpvolumes".

If the Volumes list is not already open, choose Volumes... from the Lists menu.
Fig. 41: Volumes list on host "ibm"

Changing
volume data
Before changing volume data, make sure that the volume is not in use. All users should unmount the volume, because changes take effect immediately and this could lead to strange effects, e.g. if you set a volume to "Read Only".
In order to change the parameters for a particular volume, you have to open the data window that displays all available information about the selected volume.

Open the Volumes list, select the volume name, and choose Open from the File menu (or double-click on the volume name).

Figure 42 shows volume data for a removable magneto-optical disk. In figure 43 a directory of a remote Digital Equipment VAX computer has been mounted through NFS at the local directory "/vax" and made available to EtherShare as the volume "VAX NFS-AFP Gateway".

Note: The options Create Layouts and PC Layouts in the volume data window are grayed out unless you have purchased and installed HELIOS EtherShare OPI 2.1.
Fig. 42: Volume "Magneto Optical" on host "ibm"

Fig. 43: Remote NFS volume from a digital VAX computer

The window title shows the name of the Administration Server (usually the host name), the window type Volumes and the volume name. The window shows the Volume name, the name of the UNIX Directory where the volume is mounted, the optional Password for the volume, and the volume Groups list. Note that the password is only displayed (as a matching number of dots) to the system administrator and members of the "SysAdm" group.
The Administration Server finds this information by inspecting the public volume list ("$ESDIR/conf/afpvolumes").
It is now possible to change the volume name, the UNIX directory of the volume, the volume password, and the checkboxes for Exchangeable, Read Only, Invisible, and Unicode. The volume Groups list is described later in this chapter.
If you change the Directory entry keep in mind that EtherShare does only create one new subdirectory. Parent directories must already exist.
Only check Exchangeable for removable media attached to the UNIX host which are normally changed while the host is running (e.g. magneto-optical drives). Do not check Exchangeable for local volumes and for storage mounted remotely (e.g. through NFS). The latter is usually mounted automatically on booting UNIX.
Removable media such as magneto-optical disks and CD-ROMs must be mounted with a UNIX command or (preferably) by using the EtherShare Admin, before they can be mounted on the desktop with the Chooser.
To mount a removable volume, select the volume in the Volumes list of the EtherShare Admin and choose Mount from the Volume menu.
Removable media must be formatted with a UNIX (UFS) file system which is compatible to your host. They will be unreadable if they are formatted with the Macintosh (HFS) file system.
Make sure the Read Only checkbox status reflects the readonly flag set under UNIX. This must be checked for exchangeable media which are write-protected with a write-protect tab. Otherwise you will not be able to mount them.
Invisible is used to create, on a specific server, a volume that will not be displayed by the Chooser and thus cannot be mounted. This may be useful e.g. if you are working with EtherShare OPI and want to separate your File Server from your Print Server, in order to prevent users from working on the Print Server - which is only needed for storing high-resolution images and replacing images during printing. The specific volume (e.g. /hmac) must be available on both servers but users have to work on the File Server only in order to avoid too much traffic on the network. In that case, you have to activate Invisible for the specific volume on the Print Server (compare the illustration in figure 44).
Fig. 44: Applying the Invisible option to a specific volume

With the checkbox Unicode/UTF8 ticked, the character set encoding for the specific volume is set to Unicode. This provides a correct cross-platform file name transfer (particularly if the names contain special characters such as Umlauts) between Macintosh clients, PC clients (provided that HELIOS PCShare is installed), and UNIX servers; on all machines the file names are displayed in the same way.
The pull-down menu Charset lets you select the character set which is appropriate for your workstation's setup. You can select MacRoman or the Japanese SJIS encoding, depending on which OS you are running or what language kit is installed on your Macintosh client. More character sets will be available as plug-ins.
The pull-down menu Charset appears grayed-out if the Unicode/UTF8 checkbox remains unticked since in this case the character encoding is automatically set to the old EtherShare character set (compare Calling "rebuild" in
10.2 "The Desktop Server Program").

If you make any changes in the volume data window, they are only valid after clicking Save and only take effect with the next user login. Provided that the changes have not been saved, the Revert button can be used to recall the original data. If an attempt is made to close the window without saving or reverting changes, EtherShare Admin prompts whether saving should be carried out or not.

Creating
volumes
A new volume can be created as follows:

Activate the Volumes list and choose New from the File menu (compare figure 45).

Fig. 45: Creating a new volume

The EtherShare Admin then opens a new volume data window. Fill in the volume name, UNIX directory (volume mount point) and password fields as required. The entire directory path to the mount point must already exist, with the exception of the bottom-most directory, which will be created by the EtherShare Admin, if required. The volume Groups list is described later in this chapter.
The volume's directories must not overlap or include the directories of other EtherShare volumes. You should choose the volume mount point carefully to make sure this does not happen. Furthermore, although EtherShare can utilize file systems which are mounted remotely through NFS, the directory tree of each Macintosh volume should not be split among more than one file system. Otherwise, the values for used and free space would not reflect the correct status, and trashing of files would only be possible immediately.

Important: Note that symbolic links pointing to directories would confuse the File Server. For example two directories in one volume might have the same directory ID and a "Double-click" on one of the folders then could open the other. To prevent this, EtherShare does not follow symbolic links on folders. If you need links, use the Macintosh "Make Alias" function instead.
If EtherShare detects overlapping volumes it will not mount them and issues an error message instead.

Finally, the volume's directories should not be "cross-mounted" through NFS, since Ether Share will not allow you to mount the same volume twice from two different servers (hosts). As soon as the volume is mounted by a user from one host, it will be grayed out in the Chooser for all users of other hosts. The volume will be released again automatically when it is unmounted. You can always mount the volume by logging on to the host from which it is already mounted, of course.

A new volume is entered in the server Volumes list as soon as Save has been clicked. If the volume data window is closed without saving, the new volume entry is discarded.

On saving the new volume, a new entry with the corresponding volume data is made in the public volume list ("$ESDIR/conf/afpvolumes"). See Volume size limits in chapter 9.6 "Public and private volumes", and Available storage space on volumes in chapter 9.10 "EtherShare versus AppleShare" for related information.
Volume Groups list
Especially if you store a large number of files on your EtherShare server, or if the server is used by several different departments in your company, you probably want to subdivide the hard disk(s) of your EtherShare host into several different logical AppleShare volumes. You can then set access permissions on each volume (and on individual folders in the volume) with the Sharing... option in the File menu of the Finder. To provide additional security, you can also make specified EtherShare volumes completely invisible to selected user groups, by using the volume Groups feature.

In order to assign a group to a volume, open the volume data window and the Groups list and select one of the group names. Without releasing the mouse button, drag the name away from the Groups list - a dotted frame is drawn around the selection - and release the mouse button over the volume's list of groups (see figure 46). The list will appear bold when the cursor is positioned correctly.

In the following example, the "EtherShare" volume will only be visible to members of the groups "helios" and "general". You can assign more than one group to each volume, but if you do not assign any groups at all, then the volume will by default be visible to all groups and thus to all EtherShare users (unless you have checked Invisible in the volume data window).
Fig. 46: Assigning group "general" to volume "EtherShare" on host "ibm"

Deleting
volumes
A volume can be deleted from the host as follows:

Highlight the volume name in the Volumes list and select Clear from the Edit menu (see figure 47).

The EtherShare Admin then prompts for acknowledgment of deletion, to allow deletion to be aborted, if required (see figure 48).
If deletion is confirmed, the entry is removed from the window and the corresponding entry is deleted from the public volume list ("$ESDIR/conf/afpvolumes"). Note that if the volume still contains files and folders, they are not deleted. However, they are no longer accessible to Macintosh users.
Fig. 47: Deleting a volume entry
Fig. 48: Confirming deletion of a volume entry

5.9 Volume menu
If you have selected a volume in the Volumes list window, or if the foreground (active) window is a window containing volume data, an additional menu item Volume is available in the menu bar at the top of the screen (see figure 49). The functions in the Volume menu only apply to the volume you have selected.
Fig. 49: The Volume menu item

Rebuild
Desktop
AppleShare volumes contain a special, invisible file called the volume "desktop", which is used internally by EtherShare. It contains organizational information such as the icons you see in the Finder. See chapter 10 "The Desktop Server" for details.
After a period of time, each volume desktop tends to collect a number of icons which are no longer needed, since the corresponding application has been removed from the volume. For this reason, Apple recommends to rebuild your desktop from time to time - a process which scans the entire volume for applications and makes sure that the desktop only contains icons for existing files.
You can rebuild your desktop for local Macintosh volumes (built-in hard disk) by restarting your Macintosh while holding down the Option and Command keys. However, starting with System 7, it is no longer possible to rebuild network volumes in this way.

To rebuild the desktop of an EtherShare volume, make sure that all users unmount the respective volume. Then, select the volume in the Volumes list of the EtherShare Admin and choose Rebuild Desktop... from the Volume menu (see figure 50). You will be asked for confirmation before the process is started (see figure 51).
Fig. 50: Rebuilding a volume desktop
Fig. 51: Confirming the Rebuild Desktop process

Important: You cannot rebuild read-only volumes - in this case Rebuild Desktop... in the Volume menu will be grayed out. The Read Only option can be temporarily unchecked for hard drives and magneto-optic cartridges to allow the desktop to be rebuilt. See chapter 10.2 "The Desktop Server Program" for related information.

Note: You can optionally select several volumes and thus re-build several desktops at the same time.

During an EtherShare desktop rebuild, missing resources for directories and files are automatically created for all directories in the EtherShare volume, and file IDs are created (or verified if a matching resource file already exists).
Empty Trash
AppleShare volumes with "readwrite" access - this includes both local Macintosh hard disks and EtherShare server volumes - contain a special, invisible folder called the trash folder which is used internally by the operating system. It is used to store files that you have deleted, until you choose to empty the trash and thus delete the files physically. In the case of network (shared) volumes, the trash folder actually contains multiple trash cans which are maintained separately for each user connection.
Unlike local volumes, if you unmount network volumes, the trash is usually emptied by AppleShare automatically, and its contents is no longer available to you the next time you log on. Thus, make sure you have not trashed something by mistake before you unmount a network volume.
However, this auto-clearing mechanism fails in case you shut down the Macintosh without first unmounting the network volumes. This can cause problems because of the way AppleShare allocates trash cans. Users do not have the same trash can every time they log in, but they receive a trash can number that corresponds to the number of user connections currently established. The first user who mounts a volume receives trash can number 1, the second one receives trash can number 2, and so on. Now, if user number 20 leaves his trash unemptied, and if this trash can is not allocated again (because there are always less than 20 users who mount the respective volume simultaneously), the trash will never be emptied.
If you notice that there is a lot less free space on the volume than you expected (knowing the total size of the files stored there), this may be because one of the users switched off the workstation without emptying a very full trash can. Your system administrator can check this easily with a UNIX login by looking at the total size of the network trash folder. The Finder's Get Info dialog on a Macintosh only shows the trash can size of the current user.

To empty the trash of an EtherShare volume completely, select the required volume in the Volumes list of the EtherShare Admin and choose Empty Trash... from the Volume menu (compare figure 52). There is no need anymore to unmount the volume before emptying the trash:
Fig. 52: Empty volume trash

This operation empties all trash for the volume, including the trash of those who are currently using the volume. Accordingly, you should warn logged-on users before calling this function (use the Active Users... option to see who uses a specific volume).

Important: You cannot empty the trash of read-only volumes - in this case Empty Trash... in the Volume menu will be grayed out.

Note: You can optionally select several volumes and thus empty several volume trash cans at the same time.

Mounting
removable
volumes
Removable media such as magneto-optical disks and CD-ROMs must be mounted with a UNIX command or (preferably) by using the EtherShare Admin, before they can be mounted on the desktop with the Chooser.

To mount a removable volume, select the volume in the Volumes list of the EtherShare Admin and choose Mount from the Volume menu.

Removable media must be formatted with a UNIX (UFS) file system which is compatible to your host. They will be unreadable if they are formatted with the Macintosh (HFS) file system.
Mounting causes the Administration Server to carry out a UNIX mount by calling the script "$ESDIR/etc/mount-afp". The script accesses the host's file system table (e.g. "/etc/fstab") for mounting information. After the UNIX mount, the volume can be mounted on the desktop with the Chooser. You will only see the correct Macintosh icons if the medium contains Macintosh files and has a desktop file in valid EtherShare format. Otherwise you will see generic UNIX icons only, or alternatively, the icons that have been defined in your extension mappings table (see chapter 5.13.7 "Extension Mappings").
A tick mark shows that the volume is currently mounted (compare figure 53).
Unmounting
removable
volumes
Before you can eject the medium from the drive again, all users of the volume must first unmount it by trashing the volume's desktop icon (use the Lists/Active Users... option to see who uses a specific volume). You must then do a UNIX unmount by selecting the volume in the Volumes list and choosing Mount from the Volume menu a second time, so that the tick mark disappears. You will get an error message from the EtherShare Admin if you try to unmount a drive which is still in use.

Note: A removable "read only" volume , e.g. a CD-ROM, has no ".Desktop" file. You can unmount it without getting any error message, as long as no file is still in use.
Fig. 53: Mounting a CD-ROM

Preflight conversion
A volume's character set encoding may be converted according to the procedure described in 5.8 "Volumes list", Changing volume data. Before saving the changes, you can have a preview by choosing Preflight conversion from the Volume menu. Then a "convert.log" file (see figure 54) will be displayed showing the directories/files which will be renamed.
Fig. 54: "convert.log" file

5.10 Printers list
The Printers list shows all printer queues known to EtherShare (see figure 55). The Administration Server automatically creates this list by inspecting the contents of the "printcap" file and the EtherShare main configuration file "atalk.conf".

If the Printers list is not already open, choose Printers... from the Lists menu.
Fig. 55: Printers list on host "ibm"

Each printer (i.e. printer queue) is shown in the list under its own unique logical (UNIX) name as specified in "/etc/printcap". Each queue also has an AppleTalk name, which is usually not the same as the UNIX name. The AppleTalk name is the one that appears in the Chooser under "LaserWriter", "ImageWriter" etc. alongside the names of any physical printers that might also be present in the same zone. We recommend that you name your printer queues by adding "spooler" to the AppleTalk name of the physical printer. Thus, you can easily distinguish between queues and printers in the Chooser (see figure 56).

Important: You should always select the printer queue (the spooler) rather than selecting the old entry (the physical printer) in the Chooser for printing. Due to print job spooling, it is not only much more efficient to access printers through the printer queues, but it also avoids the problem of long waiting periods that may occur if you try to access a printer both directly and through the spooler.

Select the correct spooler in the Chooser list and press the Create and Auto Setup buttons to configure the printer.
Fig. 56: Choosing a printer queue in a multi-zone network

Usually, each printer queue is associated with a single physical printer. However, you may want to allocate more than one printer queue to a printer, for example to be able to select different printer initialization strings for the same printer (see later). In this case, you will have several Chooser names for the same physical printer. However, each printer queue is always associated with its own unique logical (UNIX) printer name and "/etc/printcap" entry.

Note: In the following, the term "printer" is meant to encompass all aspects of setting up a particular printer, not only the configuration of the printer's network connection but also the configuration of the associated printer queues.

Changes in the printer configuration affect the files "atalk.conf", "/etc/printcap", and in some cases the "$ESDIR" directory (for the purpose of linking the interface program, such as "papif").
Changing printer data
In order to change the parameters for a particular printer queue, you have to open the data window that displays all available information about the selected printer (see figure 57):

Open the Printers list, select the printer name from the list and choose Settings from the Printer menu item (which appears automatically in the main menu bar whenever the Printers list is active).

As an aid to printer configuration, pop-up windows let you choose from a list of valid choices (compare figure 58).
The window title shows the name of the Administration Server, the window type Printers and the logical printer name.
Fig. 57: Printer data for AppleTalk printer "ibm-opi-spooler"
Fig. 58: Pop-up windows help you when configuring printers

The appearance of the printer data window may differ, depending on the connection type. Please refer to paragraph Creating printers below for details about the fields and possible entries.
The Administration Server gets most of the printer information from the files "atalk.conf" and "/etc/printcap".

If you make any changes in the printer data window, they are only valid after clicking Save. Provided that the changes have not been saved, the Revert button can be used to recall the original data. If an attempt is made to close the window without saving or reverting changes, EtherShare Admin prompts whether saving should be carried out or not.

Creating
printers
A new printer can be set up as follows:

Activate the Printers list and choose New from the File menu (compare figure 59).
Fig. 59: Creating a new printer entry

The EtherShare Admin then opens a new printer data window, which has already been partly filled in with default values from the "Preferences" window.
For all printer types, the window shows the logical (UNIX) Printer Name for the printer queue, the AppleTalk (NVE) name and the printer's Spool Directory. The NVE name is the name by which the printer queue is known to the AppleTalk network (the Chooser Name).

First type in the required logical UNIX name for the printer queue (Printer Name), and also the associated AppleTalk name (Chooser Name).

When typing in the Printer Name, a suggested Spool Directory is automatically filled into the corresponding field. The default suggestion can be changed if required.

The Spool Directory field specifies the directory in the UNIX file system where print jobs are to be temporarily stored before they are sent to the printer. If required, the spool directory can be set to swap out the spool files to other file systems (hard disks), but you should avoid NFS-mounted spool directories because of the performance loss. Note that the spool directory must be unique for each printer and that it is recommended to check whether there is enough free space in the directory you choose.

Note: Make sure a directory path already exists since the EtherShare Admin will only create the last subdirectory, e.g. "PrintToDisk".

You can then define a Hold Queue and/or an Error Queue for your current printer queue.

Usually, print jobs vanish after they have been sent to the output device. Hold and error queues act as a kind of archive. All print jobs that have been sent to this specific printer queue are printed and stored for a given period of time in the connected hold/error queue. They can be restarted even if the application that has initially launched the job has already been closed. All "correct" print jobs automatically proceed to the hold queue after printing. Whenever a mistake has occurred during printing, however, the print job will be shifted to the error queue (as long as hold and error queues have been specified in the pull-down menus). This holds true for technical mistakes (e.g. if the connection to the printer has been interrupted) and for errors that are due to a specific configuration (e.g. if you have defined "Check Images" for an OPI printer queue and the print server cannot find a particular image file that has been placed in the document by reference).
The setting up of hold and error queues is described later in this chapter.
Banner page
The Banner Page switch determines whether the printer will print a title (banner) page before outputting the print job. The banner page contains information about the print job such as the user name, the time and the document name. It is useful when sorting out a pile of pages if a number of users have been printing at the same time. The banner page is generated automatically. If a file named "BANNER" exists in the printer's spool directory, this file will be used. See psof in chapter 11.3 "The Print Server Programs" for more information.
Accounting File
The Accounting File switch determines whether the print server will write print job details such as the user name and the number of printed pages to the host's printer log file. The user name assigned to the job is the one specified in the Macintosh File Sharing control panel. The job will be assigned to "root" if no name is specified in File Sharing, or if the name specified is unknown to EtherShare. See User and document names in print jobs in appendix A 7.1 "EtherShare log files" for more information.
Hide Queue
The Hide Queue option is used to create a printer queue that is invisible to the Macintosh EtherShare users. This may be useful, e.g., if you want to set up a queue for UNIX and PC users only. With Hide Queue active, this queue will be invisible in the Macintosh Chooser.
Require Authentication
Printing to LaserWriter queues is password-protected if the Require Authentication option is activated. Thus, print jobs can only be processed on LaserWriter-queues after correct authentication. This option affects all LaserWriter printer queues on the same server. Please note that this feature is only supported by Mac OS 8.6 or later.

Now, choose the desired Connection type for the printer queue. The different types are explained below:

AppleTalk
connection
Choose AppleTalk in the Connection box (figure 60) for printers that are connected to the network via AppleTalk (i.e. LocalTalk, EtherTalk etc.). The AppleTalk (NVE) name, type and zone of the printer must now be specified. First choose the printer Type. You only need to change the type from the default of LaserWriter if printers of other types are available, such as AppleTalk ImageWriter printers. Now choose the Zone: if more than one zone is available, pop up the Zone list and select the one you want. Now click on the Name field to pop up a list of all devices of the specified type which are available in the selected zone, and choose the one required. The list is determined by interrogating the network for all printers. Accordingly, the printer you want to configure must be connected and online.

Important: Be careful to choose a physical printer from the list, and not another queue.

The Hide Printer option may be checked if you want to prevent the printer from being displayed in the Chooser. Thus, users cannot choose this printer - and cannot print directly to the output device. This is sensible, because printing to an output device, both directly and through a spool queue, may lead to long waiting periods on the Macintosh - in case the printer is executing a large job from a queue and the job that has been sent directly is not accepted immediately.
Fig. 60: Data for AppleTalk-connected printer "lw" on host "ibm"

If any of the entries in Zone/Name is displayed in italics, this indicates that this zone or device is currently not reachable. You should make sure that the desired printer is connected and online.
Serial
connection
Choose Serial from the Connection box (figure 61) for PostScript printers that are connected directly to the UNIX host via a serial interface.
Fig. 61: Data for serially-connected printer "epson" on host "ibm"

In this case, it is necessary to specify the correct Baud Rate for data transfer to the printer. The Device field is used to enter the designation of the host serial port to which the printer is connected (e.g. "/dev/ttya"). The device must already exist on the host - the EtherShare Admin checks for a valid character device at this address.
EtherShare uses 8-bit, no parity and hardware handshake. See 8-bit transparency and nobinmode in chapter 11.6 "Configuring printers manually" for more information about serial connections.

Note: If Connection is shown as Serial and Baud rate is shown as -1, this means that the EtherShare Admin
is unable to decode the syntax of the entry in "/etc/printcap". If the printer was previously configured correctly, this usually indicates that the "/etc/printcap" entry has been subsequently modified manually, without using the EtherShare Admin.

TCP
connection
Choose TCP from the Connection box (figure 62) for PostScript printers that are connected to the network via the TCP/IP stream protocol.
Fig. 62: Data for TCP/IP stream printer "TCP_Laser" on host "ibm"

Enter the name (or internet number) of the TCP/IP printer (or terminal server) in the Host Name field. Enter the service port name (or service number) in the Port field. There should be a PostScript interpreter listening at this address. TCP/IP stream printers must be compatible with the EtherShare TCP/IP stream implementation - contact your printer manufacturer or HELIOS supplier (see the HELIOS Web site: http://www.helios.de) if you are not sure about this. The CTRL-D switch causes a CtrlD character to be sent to the printer at the end of each job. This is only necessary if the TCP/IP printer is connected to a TCP/IP terminal server via a serial interface. See TCP/IP PostScript connections in chapter 11.6 "Configuring printers manually" for details.
Remote LPR connection
Note that "Remote LPR" is another TCP connection type, but it is not identical to TCP/IP stream. Choose Remote LPR from the Connection box (figure 63) for PostScript printers that are connected to another remote host on the network via TCP/IP. Enter the name (or internet number) of the remote host to which the printer is attached in the Remote Host field. Enter the remote printer's logical (UNIX) name in the Remote Printer field. The service port name is set to "printer" (service number 515) by default. The entry can be checked in the UNIX file "/etc/services".
Remote LPR printers require more spooling space (the size of the resolved job) on the local host than TCP/IP stream printers, and they do not return status messages or answer font queries (see TCP/IP PostScript connections in chapter 11.6 "Configuring printers manually" for more details).
EtherShare's "remote lpr" specification in "/etc/printcap" differs somewhat from standard conventions, and thus the EtherShare Admin will not list other Remote LPR printers which have been manually configured for other purposes. However, EtherShare Admin will not modify other "/etc/printcap" entries unless you inadvertently choose an already existing logical (UNIX) printer name.
Fig. 63: Data for Remote LPR printer "remLW" on host "ibm"

EtherShare's Print Server is based on the BSD printing system. If your host uses another system (as e.g. System V, the printing system Sun Solaris 2.x uses), the Print Server automatically uses its own BSD-style "lpr" program, which is provided in the "$ESDIR" directory. Manual pages for the BSD-style "lpr" are provided in PDF-format on the CD-ROM in the "manuals" directory (see file "LPRMAN.PDF").
You can specify a TCP/IP stream printer either with host internet number and service port number, or with host name and service port name. The latter method requires corresponding entries in the local host's "/etc/hosts" and "/etc/services" files. For Remote LPR, the local host must be defined on the remote host, in the "/etc/hosts" and "hosts.equiv" (or "hosts.lpd") files. Both connection types require you to configure your host for TCP/IP, of course.
Shared
Memory
connection
Choose Shared Memory from the Connection box (figure 64) for PostScript interpreters (software RIPs) running on the same host which are able to communicate through a "Shared Memory" interface.
Fig. 64: Data for "Shared Memory" RIP "shm_1" on host "ibm"

Enter the path of the Shared Memory "key" file in the Key File field. The key file must already exist on the host. See the key parameter in chapter 11.6 for more information. The RIP must be compatible with the EtherShare "Shared Memory" interface specification - contact your RIP manufacturer or HELIOS supplier (see the HELIOS Web site: www.helios.de) if you are not sure about this.
Print To Disk connection
With the Print To Disk connection (figure 65) you induce the Print Server to print to a file.
Fig. 65: Data for "printtodisk" queue on host "ibm"

You have to specify a destination for the file (UNIX Directory) and you can enter a Name Prefix and a Notify Program, if desired. The prefix serves to identify the files that are coming from this specific printer queue (in case you have several Print To Disk queues that print to the same destination). The Notify Program option lets you enter a path that leads to a specific UNIX program. This program will be started automatically after printing has been finished successfully. Furthermore, you can select a mode of Compression for the destination file and you can decide whether or not your print job has to be resolved the same way it would be resolved when printing to an output device. If the Resolve option is switched off the job will be written to the file "as is"; things that are usually accomplished during printing, as e.g. font inclusion or image replacement (for OPI only), will be skipped.
The Print To Disk option may e.g. be used for automatic generation of PDF files. You can print to files in a specific UNIX directory and induce the Acrobat Distiller software to scan this directory regularly and convert incoming files to PDF.
Balance Group connection
Choose the connection Balance Group (figure 66) in the printer data window to set up a group of printers for load balancing - that is for shifting print jobs to a second or third printer in a group whenever the first printer is busy with a huge job.
To specify a group of printers you just have to drag and drop the desired printers from the Printers window to the respective field in the printer data window (see figure 66).
Fig. 66: Data for a load balancing queue on host "ibm"

Hold Queue connection
Hold and error queues can be defined using the Hold Queue connection as shown in figure 67.
The Hide Queue option will be set automatically for this type of queues, because - usually - users should not be allowed to print directly to a hold or error queue; see paragraph Creating printers above for the purpose of hold and error queues.
The dialog lets you specify an individual Hold Time. The default value is 3 hours. If you set the hold time to 0 days and 0 hours this would mean "on hold forever". Print jobs in such a hold or error queue will be stored until you move them to another queue or delete them manually.

Important: Note that you may enter non-negative integer values only. Floating point or negative integer values may lead the Print Server to unexpected behavior.
Fig. 67: Data for a hold queue on host "ibm"

Print Preview connection
Print Preview in the Connection pop-up menu will only be active if you have purchased and installed the HELIOS Print Preview product. This connection type is described in your Print Preview manual.

Click Save to finally install a new printer queue.

Important: Once you click on Save the Admin prompts to select a PPD file for the new printer queue. A Macintosh dialog window is opened automatically for that purpose. You can cancel the process and select the PPD file later (using the Select PPD item from the Printer menu). You will get a warning message on every login if there are printer queues on the server that have not yet been assigned a PPD file. (Remember that you have to select the same PPD file later when you select the queue in the Apple Chooser.)

The Print Server needs to have a list of resident fonts for each installed printer. The printer's resident font list (the "FONTS" file in the printer's spool directory) is created automatically by the Administration Server by interrogating the printer when you first set it up. The printer must be connected and online for this to work. A warning is displayed if the Administration Server is not able to make the font list for some reason, for example because the printer is offline or busy with another job at the time (see figure 68).
Fig. 68: Message box: No font list

For all output devices where no fonts can be queried, for example Remote LPR, Print To Disk or Balance queues, EtherShare will rely on the font information provided in the PPD files specified for these printer queues. Make sure to select proper PPD files which contain current information for your output device. If there is no PPD file, EtherShare will fill in the default 34 LaserWriter Plus fonts. Another possible cause for this error is an incorrectly configured EtherShare network connection in "atalk.conf".
If the font list is missing, you should connect the printer, put it online, and select Update Fonts in the Printer menu manually (see later).
Changes made when you create a printer
When you create a printer queue with the EtherShare Admin, the following changes are made on your host:
More information about changes on the server are given in chapter 11 "The Print Server".
Deleting
printers
The spool directory and its contents are not removed when deleting a printer queue. We recommend to clear any existing print jobs and wait until the printer is idle before deleting the queue.

For deletion, activate the Printers list, select the printer name, and choose Clear from the Edit menu (see figure 69).
Fig. 69: Deleting a printer entry

The Admin then prompts for acknowledgment of deletion, to allow it to be aborted, if required (see figure 70).
Fig. 70: Confirming deletion of a printer entry

On confirmation, the entry is removed from the window and the queue on the host is stopped. The Admin deletes the configuration entries in the main configuration file "atalk.conf" and in "/etc/printcap", and the corresponding link for the interface program will be removed (if present).
5.11 Printer menu
If you have selected a printer in the Printers list window, or if the foreground (active) window is a window containing printer data, an additional menu item Printer is available in the menu bar at the top of the screen (see figure 71). The functions in the Printer menu only apply to the printer you have selected. The item OPI/ICC Settings in the Printer menu is grayed out, unless you have purchased and installed HELIOS EtherShare OPI 2.1 and/or HELIOS PDF Handshake.
Fig. 71: The Printer menu items

Settings
The Settings menu item is used to open the printer data window of a specific printer and then change its configuration. You have to highlight the printer you want to set up before choosing the item (compare figure 71).
Update Fonts
Update Fonts is used to update the Print Server's resident font list for the selected printer. Since this takes place through printer interrogation, the printer must be connected and online for this to work. You need to do this if new fonts have been installed in the printer, through font cartridges, printer cache disks etc.
Do not confuse the resident font list with download fonts which have been installed by EtherShare in the Print Server, and are available to all printers on that host. The latter can be seen by clicking Fonts... in the Lists menu.
The printer's resident font list is created automatically by the Administration Server when you set it up for the first time. The list is stored in the "FONTS" file in the printer's spool directory.
Show Fonts
The option Show Fonts shows the resident fonts of the selected printer. The Administration Server gets this information from the "FONTS" file in the printer's spool directory. The window title shows the host name, Fonts, and the printer name (see figure 72).
Fig. 72: Resident font list for printer "lw"

Edit
Initialization
Edit Initialization is used to create or change a PostScript printer initialization sequence ("INIT") for the selected printer. For example, you can use this to define a PostScript filter sequence to remove unwanted single and double "Ctrl-D" codes generated by some MS-Windows applications. A suitable filter for this is shown in the example in figure 73.
Usually, each physical printer is associated with a single printer queue. However, you can allocate more than one printer queue to a printer, which allows you to have different printer initialization strings for the same printer and to select between them in the Chooser.
Fig. 73: Printer initialization string

Note that writing INITs requires some knowledge of the PostScript language. PostScript INITs must not contain the "exitserver" operator, because the following print job will not execute properly (see appendix A 7.2 "PostScript RIP INITs in the EtherShare Admin").
The EtherShare Admin can be extended with custom PostScript calibration tools, which appear automatically in the Edit Initialization menu. On request, HELIOS will provide programming guides for developing such tools to typesetter manufacturers.
The "init" sequence is stored in the "SETUP" file in the printer's spool directory.
Another way of defining a specific behavior during printing, is to edit the queue's PPD file. This is described in paragraph Edit PPD below.
Edit Trailer
The menu item Edit Initialization can also be used to edit a queue's trailer, i.e. to define a PostScript sequence that is appended to the print job. If you press the Option key when selecting Edit Initialization the "Trailer" window will open automatically. An example of a trailer file is shown in figure 74. Note that editing a trailer file also requires some PostScript knowledge.
Fig. 74: Editing the trailer of a specific printer queue

The trailer sequence is stored in the "TRAILER" file in the printer's spool directory.
Select PPD
The PostScript printer description (PPD) file contains a complete description of the output device as for example paper margins, resolution, and PostScript Level compatibility. Assigning the correct PPD file to a printer guarantees the best possible output results (provided that you assign the same PPD file later, when you set up the printer with the Chooser on your Macintosh client). Usually, the EtherShare Admin will prompt for assigning a PPD file the moment you create a new printer queue. If you cancel the dialog box then, you will get a warning when you log in the next time. Highlight the printer name in the Printers window and choose Select PPD from the Printer menu to finally define - or if necessary change - the PPD file for a specific queue.
Edit PPD
Once you have selected a PPD file for a queue, you can display the contents of that file in a text window, and root and members of the SysAdm or QueueAdm group can even edit the file, if necessary. For that purpose, highlight the printer name in the Printers window and choose Edit PPD from the Printer menu. You can use this feature for information purposes at any time, e.g. to find out which PPD file is currently valid on a specific queue. However, you should be very careful as far as the "edit" functionality is concerned. Editing a PPD file requires some knowledge about the structure and syntax of PPD files. Also, your changes may have different effects when printing with different applications. Moreover, there is currently little safeguard against different PPDs selected for an EtherShare printer queue and selected for the LaserWriter driver on a Macintosh. With LaserWriter 8, you can "Create" or "Setup" a PPD for an entry in the Chooser and as long as you choose Auto Setup, the selected PPD on the Macintosh will at least be a PPD with the same "*NickName" entry as the PPD specified for the EtherShare printer queue. Nevertheless, in case you edited the PPD on the server, there is no mechanism to retrieve this new PPD information. You would have to adjust the PPD file on the Macintosh manually to reflect all changes of the printer queue's PPD.
Restart Printer
The option Restart Printer is used to stop and restart printing on the job queue and to re-initialize the UNIX "lpd" program for the selected printer. This may be necessary if a fatal error or network connection fault occurs while printing. You will be asked for confirmation (compare figure 75):
Fig. 75: Restarting printer "LaserWriter"

Spool only
Spool & Print
The option Spool only (see figure 76) causes following print jobs for the selected printer to be spooled to disk but not sent to the printer. This can be useful if it is required to hold back some jobs, e.g. for processing during the night shift rather than during daytime. Printing is restarted with the Spool & Print option (see below). If you switch back from Spool & Print to Spool only, the current print job will be finished on the output device, and the printing will then be stopped again.
Fig. 76: Choosing Spool only

5.12 Printer job windows - moving, restarting, and deleting jobs
Showing
printer jobs
Printer job windows display the current job queue for the selected printer. The windows are updated about twice a minute. The list shows the document name, the user name, the job size in the spool queue, the job sequence number, and the starting time, and includes both Macintosh and UNIX print jobs (compare figures 77 and 78). For related information, see also the chapter 5.13.3 "Printer Log File".

A printer job window for a specific printer queue is opened with a double-click on the queue name in the Printers window (or by highlighting the queue name and choosing Open from the File menu).
Fig. 77: List of jobs for printer "hold" (hold queue on host "ibm")
Fig. 78: Printer job window for printer "lw" on host "ibm"

The list window also contains a status line showing printer status and the quantity of data in kByte already sent to the printer for the job which is currently printing (compare figure 78). The status line is also updated about twice a minute. Due to inclusion of fonts etc., the quantity of data sent to the printer can be larger than the job size in the spool queue; if EtherShare OPI is also installed, due to image inclusion it may be considerably larger than this.
The user name assigned to the job is the one specified in the Macintosh File Sharing control panel. The job will be assigned to "root" if no name is specified in File Sharing, or if the name specified is unknown to EtherShare. See User and document names in print jobs in appendix A 7.1 "EtherShare log files" for more information.
Print jobs with a PDF icon in front of them - like those shown in figure 77 - are jobs that have run through a preview queue. To get these PDF previews of a print job, you have to purchase and install HELIOS Print Preview.
The option Bring to Front in the Edit menu can be used to move one or more selected print jobs to the 2nd top position of the queue (since the "top position" print job is considered as being processed, and therefore "untouchable").
You may also want to move print jobs manually inside the queue. Select one or more (Use Shift-click to select a range of entries and use Command-click to select/deselect individual entries from a list) print jobs by clicking with the mouse and dragging.
If you have several printer queues, you can simultaneously open printer job windows for each of them; non-active (background) windows are also updated.
Note that the "admsrv" does interpret octal backslash escape sequences in PostScript %%Title comments. This means that e.g. Japanese job titles can be displayed in a job window, provided that you use a local operating system or the "Japanese Language Kit" on your Macintosh.
Deleting
printer jobs
To delete a job, you have to proceed as follows:

Select the job in the printer job window and choose Clear from the Edit menu.

You can choose multiple jobs for deletion using standard Macintosh keyboard shortcuts (see Selecting multiple entries from a list in chapter 5.5 "About list windows"). You are only allowed to delete your own jobs, unless you are "root" or a member of the "SysAdm", "QueueAdm", or "PrnAdm" groups.
The EtherShare Admin will prompt for acknowledgment of deletion, to allow deletion to be aborted if required. You can suppress the warning by holding the Option key when choosing Clear. This can be useful when deleting a number of entries at the same time.
Moving jobs and restarting hold queues
If you have more than one printer queue running on the same host, you can open two or more printer job windows simultaneously and move jobs between queues (printers) by clicking with the mouse and dragging. You might want to do this if one of the queues is too long, or a printer needs to be stopped for cleaning. You can do this without stopping the printers.
Hold and error queues are usually not connected to a physical printer. Thus, in order to restart a job from a hold or error queue, you have to drag it to the printer job window of a queue that will execute the job. An example is shown in figure 79, where a job from a hold queue is moved to the "real printing" queue "lw".
Fig. 79: Moving jobs between printers "hold" and "lw"

Interpreting the hold time in a hold queue's
job window
Hold queues are updated according to the "watchtime" parameter in the configuration file "atalk.conf". By default, this is every 30 seconds. However, the remaining hold time, which is displayed in the headline of the printer job window is not updated that regularly. The list below shows when and how often the counter in a hold queue is changed:
Remaining hold time: Counter changes every...
1 day 60 minutes
1 hour 10 minutes
5.13 Other lists and accounting files
5.13.1 Fonts list
Fonts... in the Lists menu shows PostScript printer fonts which have been installed on the host with the EtherShare Admin. They are available to all printer queues on that host. The EtherShare Admin gets the print server's fonts list from the file "$ESDIR/psfonts/FontDirectory".
The window title shows the host name and Fonts (see figure 80). Do not confuse this window with Show Fonts in the Printer menu, which displays the list of resident fonts for the selected printer.
You can double-click on the font name to inspect the manufacturer's coded font header (see figure 80).
Fig. 80: Fonts list for host "ibm" showing font header information

EtherShare Admin can install Adobe "Type 1" and
"Type 3" printer fonts (not Screen fonts or TrueType fonts) onto the Print Server, directly from the font manufacturer's original font disks or another depository:

Open the Fonts... window in the Lists menu and choose New in the File menu. Then select the drive and folder. Select individual fonts for copying or choose Load all Fonts: (compare figure 81) to load all fonts from the folder that is currently opened.
Fig. 81: Installing fonts on the print server

Storing printer fonts on the server reduces the network load caused by font downloading from the Macintosh client. You can copy the printer fonts from one host to another, by opening both fonts lists and selecting and dragging the fonts (see chapter 5.15 "Multiple EtherShare hosts"). Of course, you cannot do this with the printer's resident fonts.

Note: The PostScript fonts that come with the HELIOS
PDF Handshake product cannot be copied between different servers.

5.13.2 Active Users list and sending messages with EtherShare Admin
Active Users shows all users currently logged-on to EtherShare. Spool jobs and other connections, e.g. PCShare users, are also listed (see figure 82).

Open the Active Users window by selecting the respective item from the Lists menu.

Selecting one or more users and then choosing Clear from the Edit menu will kill their current server connection. This is not the same as Users... in the Lists window, which shows all users with a valid account. Note that only the user him/herself, the SysAdmin or "root" are allowed to clear a connection. The Active Users... option gets its information from the file "$ESDIR/stmp". See "swho" command in chapter 8.5 "AppleTalk stack utility programs" for related information.
Fig. 82: Active Users window on host "ibm"

You can send short "AFP" messages to any client connected via AFP server or PCShare server. This can be done using the Message menu item that automatically appears in the menu bar whenever the Active Users window is open and brought to the foreground.

To send a message, highlight the users you want to address, select Message and Send Message... from the menu and enter your individual message in the dialog as shown in figure 83. This feature is available to AFP server clients only!

"AFP" messages are displayed automatically in a message window on the addressees' monitors. They are not saved in a file; the addressees delete them on closing the respective message window by clicking the OK button.
Fig. 83: Sending a message to several EtherShare users

Important: The Message To All... option in the Message menu lets you send a message to all current users. It is, however, available to "root" and members of the "SysAdm" group only.

Such messages can also be sent from the UNIX server using the UNIX "afpmsg" program. For more information read the "afpmsg" chapter in your UNIX manual.
5.13.3 Printer Log File
The printer log file shows print job accounting details for the selected host, such as job status, printer name, user name, document name, starting date/time, duration of job, number of printed pages, and printer fonts used. The job status can be = no info and ok, = extended info and ok, or = extended info and error.
The messages file, that belongs to each entry in the log file, contains even more information, e.g. the total number of bytes printed and whether you have printed composite or separations. If you are working with EtherShare OPI 2.1 the printer log messages file also provides information about image replacement. This information is especially useful for print jobs in an error queue because you will get details about the mistakes that have occurred.
To open a specific log file, select Printer Log File... from the Lists menu and specify the required day (see figure 84).
Fig. 84: Opening a printer log file

Printer log files are arranged by date. Every night at midnight the (UNIX) "cron" program starts automatically in the background and renames the log file information of the last seven days. The file "Today" becomes the file "Yesterday", "Yesterday" is renamed into "Two Days Ago", and so on. You can then select e.g. the printer log file of "Three Days Ago". Log files which are older than seven days are deleted automatically.

From the printer log file you can open the related messages files with a double-click on the respective items (compare figure 85). This is especially helpful when errors have occurred (error status = ).
Fig. 85: Printer log file and corresponding messages file

Choose Save as... from the File menu to save the printer log file as a text file. You can then read this information into a word processor or spreadsheet program for billing purposes, or to prepare job statistics. The messages files can also be saved as text files.

Users are also sent a message via UNIX mail and an additional AFP message if a printer error occurs, including "paper out". Users who have installed Helios Mail will receive the message directly on their Macintosh.

Note: The user name assigned to the job is the one specified in the Macintosh File Sharing control panel. The job will be assigned to "root" if no name is specified in File Sharing, or if the name specified is unknown to EtherShare. See User and document names in print jobs in appendix A 7.1 "EtherShare log files" for more information.

The EtherShare Admin gets its information from the files "$ESDIR/printer.acct." (which contains the data of "Today") to "$ESDIR/printer.acct.6" ("Seven Days Ago"). See Printer log file structure and User and document names in print jobs in appendix A 7.1 for related information.
Please see also the description of mail in chapter 11.6 "Configuring printers manually" for details about which printer messages are recorded in the printer log file and which ones are recorded in the system messages file.
5.13.4 Server Log File
The server log file contents depend on the operating system. Usually, the log file shows messages from all the EtherShare servers such as status ( = OK, = unsuccessful or illegal login), server name, AppleTalk (NVE) address, user name, starting date/time, duration of execution, CPU time, and memory (see figure 86).
Server log files are arranged by date. Every night at midnight the (UNIX) "cron" program starts automatically in the background and renames the log file information of the last seven days. The file "Today" becomes the file "Yesterday", "Yesterday" is renamed into "Two Days Ago", and so on. You can then select e.g. the server log file of "Three Days Ago". Log files which are older than seven days are deleted automatically.

To open a specific log file, select Server Log File... from the Lists menu and specify the day you want.
Fig. 86: Example of a server log file

Choose Save as... from the File menu to save the server log file as a text file. You can then read this information into a word processor for further use.

The EtherShare Admin gets its information from the files "$ESDIR/server.acct." (which contains the data of "Today") to "$ESDIR/server.acct.6" ("Seven Days Ago"). See Server log file structure in appendix A 7.1 "EtherShare log files" for details.
5.13.5 System Messages
The system messages file shows messages from the UNIX host in standard UNIX format (see figure 87).

Open the system messages file by choosing System Messages... from the Lists menu.
Fig. 87: System messages file on host "ibm"

Note: If the Messages window opens blank (or with an error message), the system message file may be too large to open with the memory allocated. In this case exit EtherShare Admin, and increase the memory in the Finder's Get Info dialog.

Choose Save as... in the File menu to save the system messages file as a text file. You can then read this information into a word processor, or fax it e.g. to your UNIX manufacturer in case you have a system problem.

The Admin gets its information from your host's system message file. The location of this file is specified in "/etc/syslog.conf" and depends on the UNIX system. It is e.g. "/var/adm/messages" for Solaris 2 and DG-UX.
The system message file can grow quite large. It cannot be cleared using the EtherShare Admin - the UNIX operating system usually is responsible for keeping it at a manageable size. See the description of the "cron" program in your UNIX documentation for details.
5.13.6 Versions
HELIOS continuously improves all its software products, and improved versions are released now and then. The standard EtherShare package offers a wide range of facilities and includes a number of separate Macintosh and UNIX program modules and utilities. If you ever need to contact our support department, they will want to know the software versions installed on your host (see chapter 17.1 "Support options").

With Versions... from the Lists menu you can list the versions of all major EtherShare server modules and Macintosh programs (see figure 88).
Fig. 88: Program versions

Important: For "root" and members of the "SysAdm" group, the Versions window will be updated on call. Therefore, it may take a few seconds to open the window. Regular users will get the information that was valid on the last start of EtherShare. This information may be outdated!

Besides the program versions, the Versions window also provides information about your EtherShare, interface, and syslog configuration (compare figure 89).
Fig. 89: Extended information in the Versions window

The information comes from the file "$ESDIR/Versions".
5.13.7 Extension Mappings
"afpsrv" usually simulates Finder info (such as file type and creator) automatically for files without Macintosh resource. The type of file is determined by inspecting the file's contents. This allows about 20 different icons to be shown for non-Macintosh files (see Generic icons in chapter 9.3 "Directory and file formats").
In the case of files created by DOS/Windows applications, the file type is typically indicated by adding a suffix to the file name, the so-called file name "extension".
Under EtherShare, appropriate icons can be displayed for such files by specifying the extensions in the so-called "extension mapping table" (the default file name is
"$ESDIR/conf/suffixes"). See the suffixes parameter in chapter 9.4 "Parameters of the "afpsrv" program" and Automatic extension mapping in chapter 9.6 "Public and private volumes" for related information.

Select Extension Mappings... from the Lists menu to view the extension mapping table (see figure 90).
Fig. 90: Extension mapping table

For each entry in the "suffixes" file, Extension Mappings lists the configured file name extension alongside the chosen Macintosh application (with its mini-icon) and chosen document type (with the document mini-icon).

Double-click on an entry to edit the mapping, or choose File and New to create a new mapping (see figure 91).
Fig. 91: Editing the extension mapping table

Specify the required extension in the Suffix: field. Then click on Choose to select an existing application. The Document: pop-up menu will list all document types for the chosen application, select the one you want. Click on Save when you are finished.

Important: This feature allows you to allocate file name extensions to icons of applications or documents which
already reside on the File Server or on the client computer, but it does not allow you to create new icons.

The mapping specified in the mapping table will only be applied to files that do not yet include resource information.
5.13.8 IP Access
AFP servers were traditionally only available on local area networks. The AFP over IP transport allows connections to the AFP server from anywhere in the Internet. To protect your site, you might want to create an IP access list to restrict access to your server. You can create such a list on your UNIX server (see appendix A 8: "IP configuration - Reference Part"), but it is much easier to use the EtherShare Admin instead. It offers all options that are required for a standard access control configuration. Some additional parameters are available under UNIX only. By default, access is restricted to the local network.
System
requirements
To make use of IP access control, you have to install/run:

Note: System Software 8 includes the AppleShare IP client software.

About defaults
If no access list is available, any AppleShare client in the Internet will be able to access your server. The EtherShare installation program, therefore, automatically creates an access list. This list will allow all locally connected AppleShare clients to access the server (clients on the same network segment), and it will deny access to the server to any other computer outside.
Description of the access list
Figure 92 shows an example of an IP access list. The list is sorted. At first, it contains all addresses of computers/networks to which access is explicitly denied. Then, it lists those to which access is allowed. At the end, it contains a Deny any other entry that denies server access to all computers/networks that do not appear in the list before. The representation of "any other" is 0.0.0.0 (for Address) and 0.0.0.0 (for Mask). If the Deny any other entry was missing, access would - by default - be granted to anybody in the Internet whose address had not been entered in the "Deny" section. Please note that the Deny any other entry cannot be deleted.
Fig. 92: Example of an IP access list

The access list will always be sorted that way automatically. This allows the program to go through the list from top to bottom and react very quickly. E.g. if an IP address is denied, the program can send the respective message after going through the "Deny" section only - it does not have to check the whole list. The checking mechanism is illustrated in figure 93 below.
Fig. 93: How the program deals with access requests

The columns in the access list contain the following information (see figure 92 again):
Access specifies whether access is denied or allowed.
IP specifies whether the entry is meant for a single computer (Host) or a network (Net).
Address contains the IP address of the host/network. An IP address consists of 32 bits (4 groups of 8 bits). This number of bits allows well over 2 billion unique numbers to be used to identify a node on a network. When specifying an IP address, it is common to use a dotted decimal representation of four numbers between 0 and 255 divided by a period (e.g. 192.168.4.40).
Mask is only meaningful for network entries. The mask is structured like an IP address and specifies the number of bits that are relevant to the network identification. It filters out the logical network address. The mask 255.255.255.0 for example specifies that 24 bits are to be compared with the IP number. The remaining 8 bits (that identify the individual computers of a given network) are not relevant.
Comment contains a description or name that may help you remember to whom the respective computer or network belongs.
Defining
access rights
In order to set up or change the access list for your individual server, you have to select Lists and IP Access from the Admin menu and then click the Add Entry button in the access list to open the dialog that lets you set up new definitions (compare figure 94):
Fig. 94: Setting up the IP access list

First of all, you just have to click the respective radio button to specify whether you want to Allow or Deny either a host (IP Node) or a network (IP Net). For IP Node entries you only have to enter the correct IP Address. For IP Net entries you have to enter both, an Address and a Mask (see figure 95). The Comment field is restricted to 32 characters. The access list will automatically be re-sorted after adding a new entry.
Fig. 95: Setting up an entry for a network

You can edit an existing entry directly if you want to change it. Just double-click the entry in the access list.
The Deny any other entry cannot be removed. For security reasons, it is always kept at the end of the list.
There will be rudimentary consistency checks, so you will have to be familiar with IP net/mask structuring and conventions. See your TCP documentation if you have questions.
Additional volume settings (e.g. ipaccess=...) are described in chapter 9.6 "Public and private volumes".
Please note that under UNIX, there are additional parameters available (allowdomain, denydomain). They are described in appendix A 8: "IP configuration - Reference Part". If someone edited the access list under UNIX and used these parameters, you would get a warning on opening the list with the Admin program again, because the Admin cannot display the "domain" entry. Editing the list with the Admin will replace all settings that have been defined under UNIX.
5.14 Editing "atalk.conf" (and other configuration files) manually
We strongly recommend to use the EtherShare Admin to carry out the majority of configuration tasks required by your EtherShare installation. Particularly in the case of printer setup, the EtherShare Admin only accepts meaningful parameter values and always generates syntactically correct entries in the EtherShare main configuration file "atalk.conf". However, certain seldom used parameters and switches in "atalk.conf" can only be configured manually. System administrators with UNIX experience can edit "atalk.conf" using a UNIX editor such as vi.
Macintosh users can use the EtherShare Admin to load, view, or edit "atalk.conf" - and several other configuration files, namely "/etc/printcap", "ethershare.license", and "afpvolumes".

Important: Before opening one of the configuration files with the EtherShare Admin you should make it a habit to close all open Admin windows. Otherwise, the changes you make could collide with the definitions specified in an open dialog window, and thus will never take effect.

To open the window that contains the desired configuration file, press the Option key and then select the respective item from the Lists menu (compare figure 96).

You need sufficient permissions to save the changes you make (and, depending on what you change, you may need to stop and restart EtherShare for the changes to take effect), but regular users can also use this option in order to inspect the respective files and thus check the current configuration.
Fig. 96: Opening the Lists menu while pressing the Option key

More information about parameters of the "atalk.conf" file and about syntax conventions are given in chapter 8.2 "System configuration".
5.15 Multiple EtherShare hosts
In networks with more than one EtherShare host, the EtherShare Admin can access several of them at the same time, for example to allow configuration data and print server download fonts to be copied from one host to another. Printer jobs cannot be copied between hosts.

To make multiple connections, choose Login... from the File menu as often as you need it.

Multiple lists
The presence of additional Administration Servers (i.e. hosts) is shown graphically in the Lists menu by appending "..." to all entries - e.g. Users... rather than Users - (compare figure 97).
Fig. 97: Lists menu when logged-on to more than one host

If you are logged-on to more than one host, on selecting any of the Lists items (Users..., Groups..., Volumes..., etc.), a new window will open to allow you to choose the host whose window you want. In figure 98, Volumes... has been chosen in the Lists menu, and three Administration Servers are active. To open the required data window, highlight the respective host and click on the Volumes button.
Fig. 98: Choosing the host whose volume list you want

Copying
configura-
tion data
from one host
to another
Furthermore, you can copy the configurations for users, groups, volumes, extension mappings and printers from one host to another. Print server download fonts can also be copied between two hosts. Print jobs in a printer job queue, however, can only be moved between printers on the same host, and you cannot copy resident printer fonts, of course.

To copy items, select one or more of them in the list of one of the hosts with the mouse. You can choose multiple entries using standard Macintosh keyboard shortcuts (see Selecting multiple entries from a list in chapter 5.5). Without releasing the mouse button, drag the item away from the list - a dotted frame is drawn around the selection - and release the mouse button over the corresponding list for the other host (see figure 99).

Fig. 99: Copying the user entry "selma" from host "hp" to host "ibm"

A new data window is automatically opened for the item on the target host. Please note that the default values entered in the fields of the new data window are those of the copied object, and are not the default values from the target host's EtherShare Admin application. Then click Save in order to save the new entry for the target host.
When copying a user to another host, only the user name is copied, but not the list of groups that the user belongs to. When the new entry is saved, the EtherShare Admin tries to preserve the old user ID if it is not already assigned to another user.
When copying a group to another host, only the group name is copied, but not the list of members of the group. In contrast, when copying volumes and printers, all parameters of the object are copied. Note that in case you copy printer queues or volumes to another host, the spool directories or volume directories that are specified for the queue/volume must exist on the target host as well.
Please note that it is not possible to assign a user to a group of another host. Similarly, you are not allowed to assign a group to a user of another host. Furthermore, it is not recommended (and normally not necessary) to copy user and group data to another host if your installation uses yellow pages (NIS).
If you copy items between servers that have different software products installed you will possibly not be able to save the items on the target server. For example, if you have set up a Print Preview queue on a server and want to copy this queue to a second server on which the Print Preview product is not installed, the Save button in the queue's
Settings window will be disabled on the target server.
5.16 Logging off from the Administration Server

In order to log off from an Administration Server, choose Logout... from the File menu. If more than one Administration Server is active, a dialog box will appear allowing you to choose the one you want to log off from (see figure 100).
Fig. 100: Logging off from an Administration Server

Select the server you want to log off from. Click Logout to confirm your selection.

EtherShare Admin then closes the connection to the Administration Server of the selected host, and closes all associated windows on the screen.

Choosing Quit from the File menu will terminate the Admin program and will - at the same time - close all connections.

5.17 Retrieving information about your EtherShare copy
In some situations - e.g. if you contact your dealer for administrative or support matters - you may need information about your EtherShare copy, such as serial number, machine ID, or activation key. There are different ways of retrieving these information.
You can display the complete machine ID for example by using the HELIOS product installer which is described in chapter 4 "Installation".
Or you may Option-click in the Logout... window of the EtherShare Admin after having selected the server in question. Then the serial number in digits and the machine ID in hexadecimal notation will be appearing (see figure 101).
Another possibility of retrieving product information, is to use the Admin's Versions option. This feature is described in chapter 5.13.6.
Fig. 101: Getting serial number and machine ID


© 2002 HELIOS Software GmbH